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Optimising physiochemical control of invasive Japanese knotweed / Daniel Jones; Gareth Bruce; Mike S. Fowler; Rhyan Law-Cooper; Ian Graham; Alan Abel; F. Alayne Street-Perrott; Daniel Eastwood
Biological Invasions, Volume: 20, Pages: 2091 - 2105
Swansea University Author: Fowler, Mike
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Japanese knotweed, Fallopia japonica var. japonica, causes significant disruption to natural and managed habitats, and provides a model for the control of invasive rhizome-forming species. The socioeconomic impacts of the management of, or failure to manage, Japanese knotweed are enormous, annually...
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Japanese knotweed, Fallopia japonica var. japonica, causes significant disruption to natural and managed habitats, and provides a model for the control of invasive rhizome-forming species. The socioeconomic impacts of the management of, or failure to manage, Japanese knotweed are enormous, annually costing hundreds of millions of pounds sterling (GBP£) in the UK alone. Our study describes the most extensive field-based assessment of F. japonica control treatments undertaken, testing the largest number of physical and/or chemical control treatments (19 in total) in replicated 225 m2 plots over 3 years. Treatments focused on phenology, resource allocation and rhizome source–sink relationships to reduce the ecological impacts of controlling F. japonica. While no treatment completely eradicated F. japonica, a multiple-stage glyphosate-based treatment approach provided greatest control. Increasing herbicide dose did not improve knotweed control, but treatments that maximised glyphosate coverage, e.g., spraying versus stem injection, and exploited phenological changes in rhizome source–sink relationships caused the greatest reduction of basal cover and stem density after 3 years. When designing management strategies, effective control of F. japonica may be achieved by biannual (summer and autumn) foliar glyphosate applications at 2.16 kg AE ha−1, or by annual application of glyphosate in autumn using stem injection at 65.00 kg AE ha−1 or foliar spray at 3.60 kg AE ha−1. Addition of other herbicides or physical treatment methods does not improve control. This work demonstrates that considering phenology, resource allocation and rhizome source–sink relationships is critical for the control of invasive, rhizome forming species.
Field trial, Glyphosate, Herbicide, Invasive alien plants (IAPs), Invasive non-native species (INNS), Japanese knotweed, Rhizome source–sink
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