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On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches / James Rafferty; Craig Ranson; Giles Oatley; Mohamed Mostafa; Prabhat Mathema; Tom Crick; Isabel S Moore

British Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume: 53, Issue: 15, Pages: 969 - 973

Swansea University Author: Crick, Tom

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Abstract

ObjectivesTo investigate concussion injury rates, the likelihood of sustaining concussion relative to the number of rugby union matches and the risk of subsequent injury following concussion.MethodsA four-season (2012/2013–2015/2016) prospective cohort study of injuries in professional level (club a...

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Published in: British Journal of Sports Medicine
ISSN: 0306-3674 1473-0480
Published: BMJ 2019
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa43370
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2019-08-14T09:51:41Z</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>43370</id><entry>2018-08-14</entry><title>On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches</title><alternativeTitle></alternativeTitle><author>Tom Crick</author><firstname>Tom</firstname><surname>Crick</surname><active>true</active><ORCID>0000-0001-5196-9389</ORCID><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent><sid>200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99</sid><email>9971fd6d74987b78a0d7fce128f8c721</email><emailaddr>z93Ri4T5hwMLTfh+6XG11n2HZhUyFASdV1DFdgIIhKs=</emailaddr><date>2018-08-14</date><deptcode>EDUC</deptcode><abstract>ObjectivesTo investigate concussion injury rates, the likelihood of sustaining concussion relative to the number of rugby union matches and the risk of subsequent injury following concussion.MethodsA four-season (2012/2013&#x2013;2015/2016) prospective cohort study of injuries in professional level (club and international) rugby union. Incidence (injuries/1000 player-match-hours), severity (days lost per injury) and number of professional matches conferring a large risk of concussion were determined. The risk of injury following concussion was assessed using a survival model.ResultsConcussion incidence increased from 7.9 (95% CI 5.1 to 11.7) to 21.5 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95%&#x2009;CI 16.4 to 27.6) over the four seasons for combined club and international rugby union. Concussion severity was unchanged over time (median: 9 days). Players were at a greater risk of sustaining a concussion than not after an exposure of 25 matches (95%&#x2009;CI 19 to 32). Injury risk (any injury) was 38% greater (HR 1.38; 95%&#x2009;CI 1.21 to 1.56) following concussion than after a non-concussive injury. Injuries to the head and neck (HR 1.34; 95%&#x2009;CI 1.06 to 1.70), upper limb (HR 1.59; 95%&#x2009;CI 1.19 to 2.12), pelvic region (HR 2.07; 95%&#x2009;CI 1.18 to 3.65) and the lower limb (HR 1.60; 95%&#x2009;CI 1.21 to 2.10) were more likely following concussion than after a non-concussive injury.ConclusionConcussion incidence increased, while severity remained unchanged, during the 4 years of this study. Playing more than 25 matches in the 2015/2016 season meant that sustaining concussion was more likely than not sustaining concussion. The 38% greater injury risk after concussive injury (compared with non-concussive injury) suggests return to play protocols warrant investigation.</abstract><type>Journal article</type><journal>British Journal of Sports Medicine</journal><volume>53</volume><journalNumber>15</journalNumber><paginationStart>969</paginationStart><paginationEnd>973</paginationEnd><publisher>BMJ</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>0306-3674</issnPrint><issnElectronic>1473-0480</issnElectronic><keywords></keywords><publishedDay>17</publishedDay><publishedMonth>7</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2019</publishedYear><publishedDate>2019-07-17</publishedDate><doi>10.1136/bjsports-2017-098417</doi><url>https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/53/15/969.info</url><notes></notes><college>College of Arts and Humanities</college><department>School of Education</department><CollegeCode>CAAH</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>EDUC</DepartmentCode><institution/><researchGroup>None</researchGroup><supervisor/><sponsorsfunders>World Rugby</sponsorsfunders><grantnumber/><degreelevel/><degreename></degreename><lastEdited>2019-08-14T09:51:41Z</lastEdited><Created>2018-08-14T15:41:00Z</Created><path><level id="1">College of Science</level><level id="2">Computer Science</level></path><authors><author><firstname>James</firstname><surname>Rafferty</surname><orcid/><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Craig</firstname><surname>Ranson</surname><orcid/><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Giles</firstname><surname>Oatley</surname><orcid/><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Mohamed</firstname><surname>Mostafa</surname><orcid/><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Prabhat</firstname><surname>Mathema</surname><orcid/><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Tom</firstname><surname>Crick</surname><orcid>0000-0001-5196-9389</orcid><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>Isabel S</firstname><surname>Moore</surname><orcid/><order>7</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>0043370-27082018104134.pdf</filename><originalFilename>bjsports-2017-098417.full.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2018-08-27T10:41:34Z</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>288956</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>VoR</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><action>Updated Copyright</action><actionDate>06/09/2018</actionDate><embargoDate>2018-08-27T00:00:00</embargoDate><documentNotes>This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language></document></documents></rfc1807>
spelling 2019-08-14T09:51:41Z v2 43370 2018-08-14 On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches Tom Crick Tom Crick true 0000-0001-5196-9389 false 200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99 9971fd6d74987b78a0d7fce128f8c721 z93Ri4T5hwMLTfh+6XG11n2HZhUyFASdV1DFdgIIhKs= 2018-08-14 EDUC ObjectivesTo investigate concussion injury rates, the likelihood of sustaining concussion relative to the number of rugby union matches and the risk of subsequent injury following concussion.MethodsA four-season (2012/2013–2015/2016) prospective cohort study of injuries in professional level (club and international) rugby union. Incidence (injuries/1000 player-match-hours), severity (days lost per injury) and number of professional matches conferring a large risk of concussion were determined. The risk of injury following concussion was assessed using a survival model.ResultsConcussion incidence increased from 7.9 (95% CI 5.1 to 11.7) to 21.5 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI 16.4 to 27.6) over the four seasons for combined club and international rugby union. Concussion severity was unchanged over time (median: 9 days). Players were at a greater risk of sustaining a concussion than not after an exposure of 25 matches (95% CI 19 to 32). Injury risk (any injury) was 38% greater (HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.56) following concussion than after a non-concussive injury. Injuries to the head and neck (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.70), upper limb (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.12), pelvic region (HR 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.65) and the lower limb (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.10) were more likely following concussion than after a non-concussive injury.ConclusionConcussion incidence increased, while severity remained unchanged, during the 4 years of this study. Playing more than 25 matches in the 2015/2016 season meant that sustaining concussion was more likely than not sustaining concussion. The 38% greater injury risk after concussive injury (compared with non-concussive injury) suggests return to play protocols warrant investigation. Journal article British Journal of Sports Medicine 53 15 969 973 BMJ 0306-3674 1473-0480 17 7 2019 2019-07-17 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098417 https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/53/15/969.info College of Arts and Humanities School of Education CAAH EDUC None World Rugby 2019-08-14T09:51:41Z 2018-08-14T15:41:00Z College of Science Computer Science James Rafferty 1 Craig Ranson 2 Giles Oatley 3 Mohamed Mostafa 4 Prabhat Mathema 5 Tom Crick 0000-0001-5196-9389 6 Isabel S Moore 7 0043370-27082018104134.pdf bjsports-2017-098417.full.pdf 2018-08-27T10:41:34Z Output 288956 application/pdf VoR true Updated Copyright 06/09/2018 2018-08-27T00:00:00 This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license. true eng
title On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
spellingShingle On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
Crick, Tom
title_short On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
title_full On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
title_fullStr On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
title_full_unstemmed On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
title_sort On average, a professional rugby union player is more likely than not to sustain a concussion after 25 matches
author_id_str_mv 200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99
author_id_fullname_str_mv 200c66ef0fc55391f736f6e926fb4b99_***_Crick, Tom
author Crick, Tom
author2 James Rafferty
Craig Ranson
Giles Oatley
Mohamed Mostafa
Prabhat Mathema
Tom Crick
Isabel S Moore
format Journal article
container_title British Journal of Sports Medicine
container_volume 53
container_issue 15
container_start_page 969
publishDate 2019
institution Swansea University
issn 0306-3674
1473-0480
doi_str_mv 10.1136/bjsports-2017-098417
publisher BMJ
college_str College of Science
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hierarchy_top_title College of Science
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofscience
hierarchy_parent_title College of Science
department_str Computer Science{{{_:::_}}}College of Science{{{_:::_}}}Computer Science
url https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/53/15/969.info
document_store_str 1
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description ObjectivesTo investigate concussion injury rates, the likelihood of sustaining concussion relative to the number of rugby union matches and the risk of subsequent injury following concussion.MethodsA four-season (2012/2013–2015/2016) prospective cohort study of injuries in professional level (club and international) rugby union. Incidence (injuries/1000 player-match-hours), severity (days lost per injury) and number of professional matches conferring a large risk of concussion were determined. The risk of injury following concussion was assessed using a survival model.ResultsConcussion incidence increased from 7.9 (95% CI 5.1 to 11.7) to 21.5 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI 16.4 to 27.6) over the four seasons for combined club and international rugby union. Concussion severity was unchanged over time (median: 9 days). Players were at a greater risk of sustaining a concussion than not after an exposure of 25 matches (95% CI 19 to 32). Injury risk (any injury) was 38% greater (HR 1.38; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.56) following concussion than after a non-concussive injury. Injuries to the head and neck (HR 1.34; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.70), upper limb (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.12), pelvic region (HR 2.07; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.65) and the lower limb (HR 1.60; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.10) were more likely following concussion than after a non-concussive injury.ConclusionConcussion incidence increased, while severity remained unchanged, during the 4 years of this study. Playing more than 25 matches in the 2015/2016 season meant that sustaining concussion was more likely than not sustaining concussion. The 38% greater injury risk after concussive injury (compared with non-concussive injury) suggests return to play protocols warrant investigation.
published_date 2019-07-17T06:09:15Z
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