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Glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from pathogenic bacteria / Matthew L Turner; Sian E Owens; Martin Sheldon

bioRxiv, Volume: 10.1101/679068

Swansea University Author: Sheldon, Martin

DOI (Published version): 10.1101/679068

Abstract

Pathogenic bacteria often damage tissues by secreting toxins that form pores in cell membranes, and the most common pore-forming toxins are cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. During bacterial infections, glutamine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid, and glutamine is an important nutrient fo...

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Published in: bioRxiv
Published: 2019
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa50982
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Abstract: Pathogenic bacteria often damage tissues by secreting toxins that form pores in cell membranes, and the most common pore-forming toxins are cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. During bacterial infections, glutamine becomes a conditionally essential amino acid, and glutamine is an important nutrient for immune cells. However, the role of glutamine in protecting tissue cells against pore-forming toxins is unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. Stromal and epithelial cells were sensitive to damage by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins, pyolysin and streptolysin O, as determined by leakage of potassium and lactate dehydrogenase from cells, and reduced cell viability. However, glutamine helped protect cells against cholesterol-dependent cytolysins because glutamine deprivation increased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase and reduced the viability of cells challenged with cytolysins. Without glutamine, stromal cells challenged with pyolysin leaked lactate dehydrogenase (control vs. pyolysin, 2.6 ± 0.6 vs. 34.4 ± 4.5 AU, n = 12), which was more than three-fold the leakage from cells supplied with 2 mM glutamine (control vs. pyolysin, 2.2 ± 0.3 vs. 9.4 ± 1.0 AU). The cytoprotective effect of glutamine was not dependent on glutaminolysis, replenishing the Krebs cycle via succinate, changes in cellular cholesterol, or regulators of cell metabolism (AMPK and mTOR). In conclusion, although the mechanism remains elusive, we found that glutamine supports the protection of tissue cells against the damage caused by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins from pathogenic bacteria.
College: Swansea University Medical School