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Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer / Nicole N. Soomdat, John Griffin, Michael McCoy, Marc J. S. Hensel, Stephanie Buhler, Zachary Chejanovski, Brian R. Silliman

Oikos, Volume: 123, Pages: 1081 - 1090

Swansea University Author: John Griffin

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DOI (Published version): 10.1111/oik.01579

Abstract

Ecosystems host multiple coexisting predator species whose interactions may strengthen or weaken top–down control of grazers. Grazer populations often exhibit size-structure, but the nature of multiple predator effects on suppression of size-structured prey has seldom been explicitly considered. In...

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Published in: Oikos
Published: 2014
Online Access: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/oik.01579/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa23625
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spelling 2015-10-08T19:18:47.5399643 v2 23625 2015-10-08 Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer 9814fbffa76dd9c9a207166354cd0b2f 0000-0003-3295-6480 John Griffin John Griffin true false 2015-10-08 SBI Ecosystems host multiple coexisting predator species whose interactions may strengthen or weaken top–down control of grazers. Grazer populations often exhibit size-structure, but the nature of multiple predator effects on suppression of size-structured prey has seldom been explicitly considered. In a southeastern US salt-marsh, we used both field (additive design) and mesocosm (additive-substitutive design) experiments to test the independent and combined effects of two species of predatory crab on the survival and predator-avoidance behavior (i.e. a non-consumptive effect) of both juveniles and adults of a dominant grazing snail. Results showed: 1) juvenile snails were more vulnerable to predation; 2) consumptive impacts of predators were hierarchically nested, i.e. the larger predator consumed both juvenile and adult snails, while the smaller-bodied predator consumed only juvenile snails; 3) there were no emergent multiple predator effects on snail consumption; and 4) non-consumptive effects differed from consumptive effects, with only the large predator inducing predator-avoidance behavior of individuals within either snail ontogenetic class. The smaller predator therefore played a functionally redundant trophic role across the prey classes considered, augmenting and potentially stabilizing trophic regulation of juvenile snails. Meanwhile, the larger predator played a complementary and functionally unique role by both expanding the size-spectrum of prey trophic regulation and non-consumptively altering prey behavior. While our study suggests that nestedness of consumptive interactions determined by predator and prey body sizes may allow prediction of the functional redundancy of particular predator species, it also shows that traits beyond predator body size (e.g. habitat domain) may be required to predict potentially cascading non-consumptive effects. Future studies of multiple predators (and predator biodiversity) should continue to strive towards greater realism by incorporating not only size-structured prey, but also other aspects of resource and environmental heterogeneity typical of natural ecosystems. Journal Article Oikos 123 1081 1090 multiple predator effect, salt marsh, biodiversity, species interactions 31 12 2014 2014-12-31 10.1111/oik.01579 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/oik.01579/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&amp;deniedAccessCustomisedMessage= COLLEGE NANME Biosciences COLLEGE CODE SBI Swansea University 2015-10-08T19:18:47.5399643 2015-10-08T19:06:56.1864445 College of Science Biosciences Nicole N. Soomdat 1 John Griffin 0000-0003-3295-6480 2 Michael McCoy 3 Marc J. S. Hensel 4 Stephanie Buhler 5 Zachary Chejanovski 6 Brian R. Silliman 7
title Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
spellingShingle Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
John, Griffin
title_short Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
title_full Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
title_fullStr Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
title_full_unstemmed Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
title_sort Independent and combined effects of multiple predators across ontogeny of a dominant grazer
author_id_str_mv 9814fbffa76dd9c9a207166354cd0b2f
author_id_fullname_str_mv 9814fbffa76dd9c9a207166354cd0b2f_***_John, Griffin
author John, Griffin
author2 Nicole N. Soomdat
John Griffin
Michael McCoy
Marc J. S. Hensel
Stephanie Buhler
Zachary Chejanovski
Brian R. Silliman
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publishDate 2014
institution Swansea University
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hierarchy_top_title College of Science
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hierarchy_parent_title College of Science
department_str Biosciences{{{_:::_}}}College of Science{{{_:::_}}}Biosciences
url http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/oik.01579/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&amp;deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=
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description Ecosystems host multiple coexisting predator species whose interactions may strengthen or weaken top–down control of grazers. Grazer populations often exhibit size-structure, but the nature of multiple predator effects on suppression of size-structured prey has seldom been explicitly considered. In a southeastern US salt-marsh, we used both field (additive design) and mesocosm (additive-substitutive design) experiments to test the independent and combined effects of two species of predatory crab on the survival and predator-avoidance behavior (i.e. a non-consumptive effect) of both juveniles and adults of a dominant grazing snail. Results showed: 1) juvenile snails were more vulnerable to predation; 2) consumptive impacts of predators were hierarchically nested, i.e. the larger predator consumed both juvenile and adult snails, while the smaller-bodied predator consumed only juvenile snails; 3) there were no emergent multiple predator effects on snail consumption; and 4) non-consumptive effects differed from consumptive effects, with only the large predator inducing predator-avoidance behavior of individuals within either snail ontogenetic class. The smaller predator therefore played a functionally redundant trophic role across the prey classes considered, augmenting and potentially stabilizing trophic regulation of juvenile snails. Meanwhile, the larger predator played a complementary and functionally unique role by both expanding the size-spectrum of prey trophic regulation and non-consumptively altering prey behavior. While our study suggests that nestedness of consumptive interactions determined by predator and prey body sizes may allow prediction of the functional redundancy of particular predator species, it also shows that traits beyond predator body size (e.g. habitat domain) may be required to predict potentially cascading non-consumptive effects. Future studies of multiple predators (and predator biodiversity) should continue to strive towards greater realism by incorporating not only size-structured prey, but also other aspects of resource and environmental heterogeneity typical of natural ecosystems.
published_date 2014-12-31T03:37:45Z
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