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Aqueous batteries as grid scale energy storage solutions / Jorge Omar Gil Posada; Anthony J.R. Rennie; Sofia Perez Villar; Vitor L. Martins; Jordan Marinaccio; Alistair Barnes; Carol Glover; David Worsley; Peter J. Hall
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume: 68, Pages: 1174 - 1182
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Energy storage technologies are required to make full use of renewable energy sources, and electrochemical cells offer a great deal flexibility in the design of energy systems. For large scale electrochemical storage to be viable, the materials employed and device production methods need to be low c...
|Published in:||Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews|
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Energy storage technologies are required to make full use of renewable energy sources, and electrochemical cells offer a great deal flexibility in the design of energy systems. For large scale electrochemical storage to be viable, the materials employed and device production methods need to be low cost, devices should be long lasting and safety during operation is of utmost importance. Energy and power densities are of lesser concern. For these reasons, battery chemistries that make use of aqueous electrolytes are favorable candidates where large quantities of energy need to be stored. Herein we describe several different aqueous based battery chemistries and identify some of the research challenges currently hindering their wider adoption. Lead acid batteries represent a mature technology that currently dominates the battery market, however there remain challenges that may prevent their future use at the large scale. Nickel–iron batteries have received a resurgence of interest of late and are known for their long cycle lives and robust nature however improvements in efficiency are needed in order to make them competitive. Other technologies that use aqueous electrolytes and have the potential to be useful in future large-scale applications are briefly introduced. Recent investigations in to the design of nickel–iron cells are reported with it being shown that electrolyte decomposition can be virtually eliminated by employing relatively large concentrations of iron sulfide in the electrode mixture, however this is at the expense of capacity and cycle life.
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