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Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths

Rebecca A. Belisle, William H. Nguyen, Andrea R. Bowring, Philip Calado, Xiaoe Li, Stuart Irvine Orcid Logo, Michael D. McGehee, Piers R. F. Barnes, Brian C. O'Regan

Energy and Environmental Science, Volume: 10, Issue: 1, Pages: 192 - 204

Swansea University Author: Stuart Irvine Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.1039/C6EE02914K

Abstract

In Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells, screening of the built-in field by mobile ions has been proposed as part of the cause of the large hysteresis observed in the current/voltage scans in many cells. We show that photocurrent transients measured immediately (e.g. 100 μs) aft...

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Published in: Energy and Environmental Science
ISSN: 1754-5692 1754-5706
Published: 2017
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa31836
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spelling 2017-07-07T10:11:41.9119333 v2 31836 2017-02-01 Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths 1ddb966eccef99aa96e87f1ea4917f1f 0000-0002-1652-4496 Stuart Irvine Stuart Irvine true false 2017-02-01 MTLS In Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells, screening of the built-in field by mobile ions has been proposed as part of the cause of the large hysteresis observed in the current/voltage scans in many cells. We show that photocurrent transients measured immediately (e.g. 100 μs) after a voltage step can provide direct evidence that this field screening exists. Just after a step to forward bias, the photocurrent transients are reversed in sign (i.e. inverted), and the magnitude of the inverted transients can be used to find an upper bound on the width of the space charge layers adjacent to the electrodes. This in turn provides a lower bound on the mobile charge concentration, which we find to be ≳1 × 1017 cm−3. Using a new photocurrent transient experiment, we show that the space charge layer thickness remains approximately constant as a function of bias, as expected for mobile ions in a solid electrolyte. We also discuss additional characteristics of the inverted photocurrent transients that imply either an unusually stable deep trapping, or a photo effect on the mobile ion conductivity. Journal Article Energy and Environmental Science 10 1 192 204 1754-5692 1754-5706 Perovskite solar cells; Ammonium iodide; Electric charge; Electric space charge; Electrolytes; Ionic conduction; Ions; Perovskite; Photocurrents; Solar cells; Solid electrolytes; Transients Built-in fields; Forward bias; Large hysteresis; Lower bounds; Mobile charge; Photo effect; Photocurrent transients; Space charge layers 31 1 2017 2017-01-31 10.1039/C6EE02914K COLLEGE NANME Materials Science and Engineering COLLEGE CODE MTLS Swansea University 2017-07-07T10:11:41.9119333 2017-02-01T09:15:50.1619127 College of Engineering Engineering Rebecca A. Belisle 1 William H. Nguyen 2 Andrea R. Bowring 3 Philip Calado 4 Xiaoe Li 5 Stuart Irvine 0000-0002-1652-4496 6 Michael D. McGehee 7 Piers R. F. Barnes 8 Brian C. O'Regan 9 0031836-01022017091748.pdf belisle2017.pdf 2017-02-01T09:17:48.6000000 Output 8545481 application/pdf Version of Record true 2017-02-01T00:00:00.0000000 false
title Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
spellingShingle Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
Stuart, Irvine
title_short Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
title_full Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
title_fullStr Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
title_full_unstemmed Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
title_sort Interpretation of inverted photocurrent transients in organic lead halide perovskite solar cells: proof of the field screening by mobile ions and determination of the space charge layer widths
author_id_str_mv 1ddb966eccef99aa96e87f1ea4917f1f
author_id_fullname_str_mv 1ddb966eccef99aa96e87f1ea4917f1f_***_Stuart, Irvine_***_0000-0002-1652-4496
author Stuart, Irvine
author2 Rebecca A. Belisle
William H. Nguyen
Andrea R. Bowring
Philip Calado
Xiaoe Li
Stuart Irvine
Michael D. McGehee
Piers R. F. Barnes
Brian C. O'Regan
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container_title Energy and Environmental Science
container_volume 10
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publishDate 2017
institution Swansea University
issn 1754-5692
1754-5706
doi_str_mv 10.1039/C6EE02914K
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description In Methyl Ammonium Lead Iodide (MAPI) perovskite solar cells, screening of the built-in field by mobile ions has been proposed as part of the cause of the large hysteresis observed in the current/voltage scans in many cells. We show that photocurrent transients measured immediately (e.g. 100 μs) after a voltage step can provide direct evidence that this field screening exists. Just after a step to forward bias, the photocurrent transients are reversed in sign (i.e. inverted), and the magnitude of the inverted transients can be used to find an upper bound on the width of the space charge layers adjacent to the electrodes. This in turn provides a lower bound on the mobile charge concentration, which we find to be ≳1 × 1017 cm−3. Using a new photocurrent transient experiment, we show that the space charge layer thickness remains approximately constant as a function of bias, as expected for mobile ions in a solid electrolyte. We also discuss additional characteristics of the inverted photocurrent transients that imply either an unusually stable deep trapping, or a photo effect on the mobile ion conductivity.
published_date 2017-01-31T12:38:55Z
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