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Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults / Gareth, Stratton

The Lancet, Volume: 390, Pages: 2627 - 2642

Swansea University Author: Gareth, Stratton

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Abstract

SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to ob...

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Published in: The Lancet
ISSN: 0140-6736
Published: 2017
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa36049
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>36049</id><entry>2017-10-13</entry><title>Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128&#xB7;9 million children, adolescents, and adults</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01</sid><ORCID>0000-0001-5618-0803</ORCID><firstname>Gareth</firstname><surname>Stratton</surname><name>Gareth Stratton</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2017-10-13</date><deptcode>STSC</deptcode><abstract>SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128&#xB7;9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31&#xB7;5 million aged 5&#x2013;19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5&#x2013;19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (&#x2212;0&#xB7;01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval &#x2212;0&#xB7;42 to 0&#xB7;39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0&#xB7;5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1&#xB7;00 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;69&#x2013;1&#xB7;35, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0&#xB7;95 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;64&#x2013;1&#xB7;25, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0&#xB7;09 kg/m2 per decade (&#x2212;0&#xB7;33 to 0&#xB7;49, PP=0&#xB7;6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0&#xB7;77 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;50&#x2013;1&#xB7;06, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0&#xB7;7% (0&#xB7;4&#x2013;1&#xB7;2) in 1975 to 5&#xB7;6% (4&#xB7;8&#x2013;6&#xB7;5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0&#xB7;9% (0&#xB7;5&#x2013;1&#xB7;3) in 1975 to 7&#xB7;8% (6&#xB7;7&#x2013;9&#xB7;1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9&#xB7;2% (6&#xB7;0&#x2013;12&#xB7;9) in 1975 to 8&#xB7;4% (6&#xB7;8&#x2013;10&#xB7;1) in 2016 in girls and from 14&#xB7;8% (10&#xB7;4&#x2013;19&#xB7;5) in 1975 to 12&#xB7;4% (10&#xB7;3&#x2013;14&#xB7;5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22&#xB7;7% (16&#xB7;7&#x2013;29&#xB7;6) among girls and 30&#xB7;7% (23&#xB7;5&#x2013;38&#xB7;0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44&#x2013;117) million girls and 117 (70&#x2013;178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24&#x2013;89) million girls and 74 (39&#x2013;125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>The Lancet</journal><volume>390</volume><paginationStart>2627</paginationStart><paginationEnd>2642</paginationEnd><publisher/><issnPrint>0140-6736</issnPrint><keywords/><publishedDay>31</publishedDay><publishedMonth>12</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2017</publishedYear><publishedDate>2017-12-31</publishedDate><doi>10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Sports Science</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>STSC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><lastEdited>2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862</lastEdited><Created>2017-10-13T15:47:15.3331857</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Engineering</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Leandra</firstname><surname>Abarca-G&#xF3;mez</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Ziad A</firstname><surname>Abdeen</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Zargar Abdul</firstname><surname>Hamid</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Niveen M</firstname><surname>Abu-Rmeileh</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Benjamin</firstname><surname>Acosta-Cazares</surname><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Cecilia</firstname><surname>Acuin</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>Robert 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spelling 2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862 v2 36049 2017-10-13 Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01 0000-0001-5618-0803 Gareth Stratton Gareth Stratton true false 2017-10-13 STSC SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP&#62;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Journal Article The Lancet 390 2627 2642 0140-6736 31 12 2017 2017-12-31 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3 COLLEGE NANME Sports Science COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862 2017-10-13T15:47:15.3331857 College of Engineering Engineering Leandra Abarca-Gómez 1 Ziad A Abdeen 2 Zargar Abdul Hamid 3 Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh 4 Benjamin Acosta-Cazares 5 Cecilia Acuin 6 Robert J Adams 7 Wichai Aekplakorn 8 Kaosar Afsana 9 Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas 10 Charles Agyemang 11 Alireza Ahmadvand 12 Wolfgang Ahrens 13 Kamel Ajlouni 14 Nazgul Akhtaeva 15 Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa 16 Amani Rashed Al-Othman 17 Rajaa Al-Raddadi 18 Fadia Al Buhairan 19 Shahla Al Dhukair 20 Mohamed M Ali 21 Osman Ali 22 Ala'a Alkerwi 23 Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol 24 Eman Aly 25 Deepak N Amarapurkar 26 Philippe Amouyel 27 Antoinette Amuzu 28 Lars Bo Andersen 29 Sigmund A Anderssen 30 Dolores S Andrade 31 Lars H Ängquist 32 Ranjit Mohan Anjana 33 Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri 34 Joana Araújo 35 Inger Ariansen 36 Tahir Aris 37 Nimmathota Arlappa 38 Dominique Arveiler 39 Krishna K Aryal 40 Thor Aspelund 41 Felix K Assah 42 Maria Cecília F Assunção 43 May Soe Aung 44 Mária Avdicová 45 Ana Azevedo 46 Fereidoun Azizi 47 Bontha V Babu 48 Suhad Bahijri 49 Jennifer L Baker 50 Nagalla Balakrishna 51 Mohamed Bamoshmoosh 52 Maciej Banach 53 Piotr Bandosz 54 José R Banegas 55 Carlo M Barbagallo 56 Alberto Barceló 57 Amina Barkat 58 Aluisio JD Barros 59 Mauro VG Barros 60 Iqbal Bata 61 Anwar M Batieha 62 Rosangela L Batista 63 Assembekov Batyrbek 64 Louise A Baur 65 Robert Beaglehole 66 Habiba Ben Romdhane 67 Judith Benedics 68 Mikhail Benet 69 James E Bennett 70 Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz 71 Gailute Bernotiene 72 Heloisa Bettiol 73 Aroor Bhagyalaxmi 74 Sumit Bharadwaj 75 Santosh K Bhargava 76 Zaid Bhatti 77 Zulfiqar A Bhutta 78 Hongsheng Bi 79 Yufang Bi 80 Anna Biehl 81 Mukharram Bikbov 82 Bihungum Bista 83 Dusko J Bjelica 84 Peter Bjerregaard 85 Espen Bjertness 86 Marius B Bjertness 87 Cecilia Björkelund 88 Anneke Blokstra 89 Simona Bo 90 Martin Bobak 91 Lynne M Boddy 92 Bernhard O Boehm 93 Heiner Boeing 94 Jose G Boggia 95 Carlos P Boissonnet 96 Marialaura Bonaccio 97 Vanina Bongard 98 Pascal Bovet 99 Lien Braeckevelt 100 Lutgart Braeckman 101 Marjolijn CE Bragt 102 Imperia Brajkovich 103 Francesco Branca 104 Juergen Breckenkamp 105 João Breda 106 Hermann Brenner 107 Lizzy M Brewster 108 Garry R Brian 109 Lacramioara Brinduse 110 Graziella Bruno 111 H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita 112 Anna Bugge 113 Marta Buoncristiano 114 Genc Burazeri 115 Con Burns 116 Antonio Cabrera de León 117 Joseph Cacciottolo 118 Hui Cai 119 Tilema Cama 120 Christine Cameron 121 José Camolas 122 Günay Can 123 Ana Paula C Cândido 124 Mario Capanzana 125 Vincenzo Capuano 126 Viviane C Cardoso 127 Axel C Carlsson 128 Maria J Carvalho 129 Felipe F Casanueva 130 Juan-Pablo Casas 131 Carmelo A Caserta 132 Snehalatha Chamukuttan 133 Angelique W Chan 134 Queenie Chan 135 Himanshu K Chaturvedi 136 Nishi Chaturvedi 137 Chien-Jen Chen 138 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Gonzalez-Gross 283 Frederic Gottrand 284 Antonio Pedro Graça 285 Sidsel Graff-Iversen 286 Dušan Grafnetter 287 Aneta Grajda 288 Maria G Grammatikopoulou 289 Ronald D Gregor 290 Tomasz Grodzicki 291 Anders Grøntved 292 Giuseppe Grosso 293 Gabriella Gruden 294 Vera Grujic 295 Dongfeng Gu 296 Emanuela Gualdi-Russo 297 Pilar Guallar-Castillón 298 Ong Peng Guan 299 Elias F Gudmundsson 300 Vilmundur Gudnason 301 Ramiro Guerrero 302 Idris Guessous 303 Andre L Guimaraes 304 Martin C Gulliford 305 Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir 306 Marc Gunter 307 Xiuhua Guo 308 Yin Guo 309 Prakash C Gupta 310 Rajeev Gupta 311 Oye Gureje 312 Beata Gurzkowska 313 Laura Gutierrez 314 Felix Gutzwiller 315 Farzad Hadaegh 316 Charalambos A Hadjigeorgiou 317 Khairil Si-Ramlee 318 Jytte Halkjær 319 Ian R Hambleton 320 Rebecca Hardy 321 Rachakulla Hari Kumar 322 Maria Hassapidou 323 Jun Hata 324 Alison J Hayes 325 Jiang He 326 Regina Heidinger-Felso 327 Mirjam Heinen 328 Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks 329 Ana Henriques 330 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Jelakovic 380 Garry Jennings 381 Seung-Lyeal Jeong 382 Chao Qiang Jiang 383 Santa Magaly Jiménez-Acosta 384 Michel Joffres 385 Mattias Johansson 386 Jost B Jonas 387 Torben Jørgensen 388 Pradeep Joshi 389 Dragana P Jovic 390 Jacek Józwiak 391 Anne Juolevi 392 Gregor Jurak 393 Vesna Jureša 394 Rudolf Kaaks 395 Anthony Kafatos 396 Eero O Kajantie 397 Ofra Kalter-Leibovici 398 Nor Azmi Kamaruddin 399 Efthymios Kapantais 400 Khem B Karki 401 Amir Kasaeian 402 Joanne Katz 403 Jussi Kauhanen 404 Prabhdeep Kaur 405 Maryam Kavousi 406 Gyulli Kazakbaeva 407 Ulrich Keil 408 Lital Keinan Boker 409 Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi 410 Roya Kelishadi 411 Cecily Kelleher 412 Han CG Kemper 413 Andre P Kengne 414 Alina Kerimkulova 415 Mathilde Kersting 416 Timothy Key 417 Yousef Saleh Khader 418 Davood Khalili 419 Young-Ho Khang 420 Mohammad Khateeb 421 Kay-Tee Khaw 422 Ilse MSL Khouw 423 Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer 424 Stefan Kiechl 425 Japhet Killewo 426 Jeongseon Kim 427 Yeon-Yong Kim 428 Jeannette Klimont 429 Jurate Klumbiene 430 Michael Knoflach 431 Bhawesh Koirala 432 Elin Kolle 433 Patrick Kolsteren 434 Paul Korrovits 435 Jelena Kos 436 Seppo Koskinen 437 Katsuyasu Kouda 438 Viktoria A Kovacs 439 Sudhir Kowlessur 440 Slawomir Koziel 441 Wolfgang Kratzer 442 Susi Kriemler 443 Peter Lund Kristensen 444 Steinar Krokstad 445 Daan Kromhout 446 Herculina S Kruger 447 Ruzena Kubinova 448 Renata Kuciene 449 Diana Kuh 450 Urho M Kujala 451 Zbigniew Kulaga 452 R Krishna Kumar 453 Marie Kunešová 454 Pawel Kurjata 455 Yadlapalli S Kusuma 456 Kari Kuulasmaa 457 Catherine Kyobutungi 458 Quang Ngoc La 459 Fatima Zahra Laamiri 460 Tiina Laatikainen 461 Carl Lachat 462 Youcef Laid 463 Tai Hing Lam 464 Orlando Landrove 465 Vera Lanska 466 Georg Lappas 467 Bagher Larijani 468 Lars E Laugsand 469 Laura Lauria 470 Avula Laxmaiah 471 Khanh Le Nguyen Bao 472 Tuyen D Le 473 May Antonnette O Lebanan 474 Catherine Leclercq 475 Jeannette Lee 476 Jeonghee Lee 477 Terho Lehtimäki 478 Luz M León-Muñoz 479 Naomi S Levitt 480 Yanping Li 481 Christa L Lilly 482 Wei-Yen Lim 483 M Fernanda Lima-Costa 484 Hsien-Ho Lin 485 Xu Lin 486 Lars Lind 487 Allan Linneberg 488 Lauren Lissner 489 Mieczyslaw Litwin 490 Jing Liu 491 Helle-Mai Loit 492 Luis Lopes 493 Roberto Lorbeer 494 Paulo A Lotufo 495 José Eugenio Lozano 496 Dalia Luksiene 497 Annamari Lundqvist 498 Nuno Lunet 499 Per Lytsy 500 Guansheng Ma 501 Jun Ma 502 George LL Machado-Coelho 503 Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues 504 Suka Machi 505 Stefania Maggi 506 Dianna J Magliano 507 Emmanuella Magriplis 508 Alagappan Mahaletchumy 509 Bernard Maire 510 Marjeta Majer 511 Marcia Makdisse 512 Reza Malekzadeh 513 Rahul Malhotra 514 Kodavanti Mallikharjuna Rao 515 Sofia Malyutina 516 Yannis Manios 517 Jim I Mann 518 Enzo Manzato 519 Paula Margozzini 520 Anastasia Markaki 521 Oonagh Markey 522 Larissa P Marques 523 Pedro Marques-Vidal 524 Jaume Marrugat 525 Yves Martin-Prevel 526 Rosemarie Martin 527 Reynaldo Martorell 528 Eva Martos 529 Stefano Marventano 530 Shariq R Masoodi 531 Ellisiv B Mathiesen 532 Alicia Matijasevich 533 Tandi E Matsha 534 Artur Mazur 535 Jean Claude N Mbanya 536 Shelly R McFarlane 537 Stephen T McGarvey 538 Martin McKee 539 Stela McLachlan 540 Rachael M McLean 541 Scott B McLean 542 Breige A McNulty 543 Safiah Md Yusof 544 Sounnia Mediene-Benchekor 545 Jurate Medzioniene 546 Aline Meirhaeghe 547 Jørgen Meisfjord 548 Christa Meisinger 549 Ana Maria B Menezes 550 Geetha R Menon 551 Gert BM Mensink 552 Indrapal I Meshram 553 Andres Metspalu 554 Haakon E Meyer 555 Jie Mi 556 Kim F Michaelsen 557 Nathalie Michels 558 Kairit Mikkel 559 Jody C Miller 560 Cláudia S Minderico 561 Juan Francisco Miquel 562 J Jaime Miranda 563 Daphne Mirkopoulou 564 Erkin Mirrakhimov 565 Marjeta Mišigoj-Durakovic 566 Antonio Mistretta 567 Veronica Mocanu 568 Pietro A Modesti 569 Mostafa K Mohamed 570 Kazem Mohammad 571 Noushin Mohammadifard 572 Viswanathan Mohan 573 Salim Mohanna 574 Muhammad Fadhli Mohd Yusoff 575 Drude Molbo 576 Line T Møllehave 577 Niels C Møller 578 Dénes Molnár 579 Amirabbas Momenan 580 Charles K Mondo 581 Eric A Monterrubio 582 Kotsedi Daniel K Monyeki 583 Jin Soo Moon 584 Leila B Moreira 585 Alain Morejon 586 Luis A Moreno 587 Karen Morgan 588 Erik Lykke Mortensen 589 George Moschonis 590 Malgorzata Mossakowska 591 Aya Mostafa 592 Jorge Mota 593 Anabela Mota-Pinto 594 Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh 595 Jorge Motta 596 Thet Thet Mu 597 Magdalena Muc 598 Maria Lorenza Muiesan 599 Martina Müller-Nurasyid 600 Neil Murphy 601 Jaakko Mursu 602 Elaine M Murtagh 603 Vera Musil 604 Iraj Nabipour 605 Gabriele Nagel 606 Balkish M Naidu 607 Harunobu Nakamura 608 Jana Námešná 609 Ei Ei K Nang 610 Vinay B Nangia 611 Martin Nankap 612 Sameer Narake 613 Paola Nardone 614 Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz 615 William A Neal 616 Ilona Nenko 617 Martin Neovius 618 Flavio Nervi 619 Chung T Nguyen 620 Nguyen D Nguyen 621 Quang Ngoc Nguyen 622 Ramfis E Nieto-Martínez 623 Guang Ning 624 Toshiharu Ninomiya 625 Sania Nishtar 626 Marianna Noale 627 Oscar A Noboa 628 Teresa Norat 629 Sawada Norie 630 Davide Noto 631 Mohannad Al Nsour 632 Dermot O'Reilly 633 Galina Obreja 634 Eiji Oda 635 Glenn Oehlers 636 Kyungwon Oh 637 Kumiko Ohara 638 Örn Olafsson 639 Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto 640 Isabel O Oliveira 641 Maciej Oltarzewski 642 Mohd Azahadi Omar 643 Altan Onat 644 Sok King Ong 645 Lariane M Ono 646 Pedro Ordunez 647 Rui Ornelas 648 Ana P Ortiz 649 Merete Osler 650 Clive Osmond 651 Sergej M Ostojic 652 Afshin Ostovar 653 Johanna A Otero 654 Kim Overvad 655 Ellis Owusu-Dabo 656 Fred Michel Paccaud 657 Cristina Padez 658 Elena Pahomova 659 Andrzej Pajak 660 Domenico Palli 661 Alberto Palloni 662 Luigi Palmieri 663 Wen-Harn Pan 664 Songhomitra Panda-Jonas 665 Arvind Pandey 666 Francesco Panza 667 Dimitrios Papandreou 668 Soon-Woo Park 669 Winsome R Parnell 670 Mahboubeh Parsaeian 671 Ionela M Pascanu 672 Nikhil D Patel 673 Ivan Pecin 674 Mangesh S Pednekar 675 Nasheeta Peer 676 Petra H Peeters 677 Sergio Viana Peixoto 678 Markku Peltonen 679 Alexandre C Pereira 680 Napoleon Perez-Farinos 681 Cynthia M Pérez 682 Annette Peters 683 Janina Petkeviciene 684 Ausra Petrauskiene 685 Niloofar Peykari 686 Son Thai Pham 687 Daniela Pierannunzio 688 Iris Pigeot 689 Hynek Pikhart 690 Aida Pilav 691 Lorenza Pilotto 692 Francesco Pistelli 693 Freda Pitakaka 694 Aleksandra Piwonska 695 Pedro Plans-Rubió 696 Bee Koon Poh 697 Hermann Pohlabeln 698 Raluca M Pop 699 Stevo R Popovic 700 Miquel Porta 701 Marileen LP Portegies 702 Georg Posch 703 Dimitrios Poulimeneas 704 Hamed Pouraram 705 Akram Pourshams 706 Hossein Poustchi 707 Rajendra Pradeepa 708 Mathur Prashant 709 Jacqueline F Price 710 Jardena J Puder 711 Iveta Pudule 712 Maria Puiu 713 Margus Punab 714 Radwan F Qasrawi 715 Mostafa Qorbani 716 Tran Quoc Bao 717 Ivana Radic 718 Ricardas Radisauskas 719 Mahfuzar Rahman 720 Mahmudur Rahman 721 Olli Raitakari 722 Manu Raj 723 Sudha Ramachandra Rao 724 Ambady Ramachandran 725 Jacqueline Ramke 726 Elisabete Ramos 727 Rafel Ramos 728 Lekhraj Rampal 729 Sanjay Rampal 730 Ramon A Rascon-Pacheco 731 Josep Redon 732 Paul Ferdinand M Reganit 733 Lourdes Ribas-Barba 734 Robespierre Ribeiro 735 Elio Riboli 736 Fernando Rigo 737 Tobias F Rinke de Wit 738 Ana Rito 739 Raphael M Ritti-Dias 740 Juan A Rivera 741 Sian M Robinson 742 Cynthia Robitaille 743 Daniela Rodrigues 744 Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo 745 María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez 746 Laura A Rodríguez-Villamizar 747 Rosalba Rojas-Martinez 748 Nipa Rojroongwasinkul 749 Dora Romaguera 750 Kimmo Ronkainen 751 Annika Rosengren 752 Ian Rouse 753 Joel GR Roy 754 Adolfo Rubinstein 755 Frank J Rühli 756 Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt 757 Paola Russo 758 Marcin Rutkowski 759 Charumathi Sabanayagam 760 Harshpal S Sachdev 761 Olfa Saidi 762 Benoit Salanave 763 Eduardo Salazar Martinez 764 Diego Salmerón 765 Veikko Salomaa 766 Jukka T Salonen 767 Massimo Salvetti 768 Jose Sánchez-Abanto 769 Sandjaja 770 Susana Sans 771 Loreto Santa Marina 772 Diana A Santos 773 Ina S Santos 774 Osvaldo Santos 775 Renata Nunes dos Santos 776 Rute Santos 777 Jouko L Saramies 778 Luis B Sardinha 779 Nizal Sarrafzadegan 780 Kai-Uwe Saum 781 Savvas Savva 782 Mathilde Savy 783 Marcia Scazufca 784 Angelika Schaffrath Rosario 785 Herman Schargrodsky 786 Anja Schienkiewitz 787 Sabine Schipf 788 Carsten O Schmidt 789 Ida Maria Schmidt 790 Constance Schultsz 791 Aletta E Schutte 792 Aye Aye Sein 793 Abhijit Sen 794 Idowu O Senbanjo 795 Sadaf G Sepanlou 796 Luis Serra-Majem 797 Svetlana A Shalnova 798 Sanjib K Sharma 799 Jonathan E Shaw 800 Kenji Shibuya 801 Dong Wook Shin 802 Youchan Shin 803 Rahman Shiri 804 Alfonso Siani 805 Rosalynn Siantar 806 Abla M Sibai 807 Antonio M Silva 808 Diego Augusto Santos Silva 809 Mary Simon 810 Judith Simons 811 Leon A Simons 812 Agneta Sjöberg 813 Michael Sjöström 814 Sine Skovbjerg 815 Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer 816 Przemyslaw Slusarczyk 817 Liam Smeeth 818 Margaret C Smith 819 Marieke B Snijder 820 Hung-Kwan So 821 Eugène Sobngwi 822 Stefan Söderberg 823 Moesijanti YE Soekatri 824 Vincenzo Solfrizzi 825 Emily Sonestedt 826 Yi Song 827 Thorkild IA Sørensen 828 Maroje Soric 829 Charles Sossa Jérome 830 Aicha Soumare 831 Angela Spinelli 832 Igor Spiroski 833 Jan A Staessen 834 Hanspeter Stamm 835 Gregor Starc 836 Maria G Stathopoulou 837 Kaspar Staub 838 Bill Stavreski 839 Jostein Steene-Johannessen 840 Peter Stehle 841 Aryeh D Stein 842 George S Stergiou 843 Jochanan Stessman 844 Jutta Stieber 845 Doris Stöckl 846 Tanja Stocks 847 Jakub Stokwiszewski 848 Gareth Stratton 0000-0001-5618-0803 849 Karien Stronks 850 Maria Wany Strufaldi 851 Ramón Suárez-Medina 852 Chien-An Sun 853 Johan Sundström 854 Yn-Tz Sung 855 Jordi Sunyer 856 Paibul Suriyawongpaisal 857 Boyd A Swinburn 858 Rody G Sy 859 Lucjan Szponar 860 E Shyong Tai 861 Mari-Liis Tammesoo 862 Abdonas Tamosiunas 863 Eng Joo Tan 864 Xun Tang 865 Frank Tanser 866 Yong Tao 867 Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh 868 Jakob Tarp 869 Carolina B Tarqui-Mamani 870 Oana-Florentina Tautu 871 Radka Taxová Braunerová 872 Anne Taylor 873 Félicité Tchibindat 874 Holger Theobald 875 Xenophon Theodoridis 876 Lutgarde Thijs 877 Betina H Thuesen 878 Anne Tjonneland 879 Hanna K Tolonen 880 Janne S Tolstrup 881 Murat Topbas 882 Roman Topór-Madry 883 María José Tormo 884 Michael J Tornaritis 885 Maties Torrent 886 Stefania Toselli 887 Pierre Traissac 888 Dimitrios Trichopoulos 889 Antonia Trichopoulou 890 Oanh TH Trinh 891 Atul Trivedi 892 Lechaba Tshepo 893 Maria Tsigga 894 Shoichiro Tsugane 895 Marshall K Tulloch-Reid 896 Fikru Tullu 897 Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen 898 Jaakko Tuomilehto 899 Maria L Turley 900 Per Tynelius 901 Themistoklis Tzotzas 902 Christophe Tzourio 903 Peter Ueda 904 Eunice E Ugel 905 Flora AM Ukoli 906 Hanno Ulmer 907 Belgin Unal 908 Hannu MT Uusitalo 909 Gonzalo Valdivia 910 Susana Vale 911 Damaskini Valvi 912 Yvonne T van der Schouw 913 Koen Van Herck 914 Hoang Van Minh 915 Lenie van Rossem 916 Natasja M Van Schoor 917 Irene GM van 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Wojtyniak 967 Roy A Wong-McClure 968 Justin YY Wong 969 Jyh Eiin Wong 970 Tien Yin Wong 971 Jean Woo 972 Mark Woodward 973 Frederick C Wu 974 Jianfeng Wu 975 Shouling Wu 976 Haiquan Xu 977 Liang Xu 978 Uruwan Yamborisut 979 Weili Yan 980 Xiaoguang Yang 981 Nazan Yardim 982 Xingwang Ye 983 Panayiotis K Yiallouros 984 Agneta Yngve 985 Akihiro Yoshihara 986 Qi Sheng You 987 Novie O Younger-Coleman 988 Faudzi Yusoff 989 Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff 990 Luciana Zaccagni 991 Vassilis Zafiropulos 992 Ahmad A Zainuddin 993 Sabina Zambon 994 Antonis Zampelas 995 Hana Zamrazilová 996 Tomasz Zdrojewski 997 Yi Zeng 998 Dong Zhao 999 Wenhua Zhao 1000 Wei Zheng 1001 Yingfeng Zheng 1002 Bekbolat Zholdin 1003 Maigeng Zhou 1004 Dan Zhu 1005 Baurzhan Zhussupov 1006 Esther Zimmermann 1007 Julio Zuñiga Cisneros 1008 James Bentham 1009 Mariachiara Di Cesare 1010 Ver Bilano 1011 Honor Bixby 1012 Bin Zhou 1013 Gretchen A Stevens 1014 Leanne M Riley 1015 Cristina Taddei 1016 Kaveh Hajifathalian 1017 Yuan Lu 1018 Stefan Savin 1019 Melanie J Cowan 1020 Christopher J Paciorek 1021 Adela Chirita-Emandi 1022 Alison J Hayes 1023 Joanne Katz 1024 Roya Kelishadi 1025 Andre Pascal Kengne 1026 Young-Ho Khang 1027 Avula Laxmaiah 1028 Yanping Li 1029 Jun Ma 1030 J Jaime Miranda 1031 Aya Mostafa 1032 Martin Neovius 1033 Cristina Padez 1034 Lekhraj Rampal 1035 Aubrianna Zhu 1036 James E Bennett 1037 Goodarz Danaei 1038 Zulfiqar A Bhutta 1039 Majid Ezzati 1040 0036049-13102017155123.pdf stratton2017.pdf 2017-10-13T15:51:23.4070000 Output 2524645 application/pdf Version of Record true This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. true eng
title Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
spellingShingle Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Gareth, Stratton
title_short Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_full Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_fullStr Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_full_unstemmed Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_sort Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
author_id_str_mv 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01
author_id_fullname_str_mv 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01_***_Gareth, Stratton
author Gareth, Stratton
format Journal article
container_title The Lancet
container_volume 390
container_start_page 2627
publishDate 2017
institution Swansea University
issn 0140-6736
doi_str_mv 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
college_str College of Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP&#62;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.
published_date 2017-12-31T03:59:39Z
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