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Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults / Leandra Abarca-Gómez; Ziad A Abdeen; Zargar Abdul Hamid; Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh; Benjamin Acosta-Cazares; Cecilia Acuin; Robert J Adams; Wichai Aekplakorn; Kaosar Afsana; Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas; Charles Agyemang; Alireza Ahmadvand; Wolfgang Ahrens; Kamel Ajlouni; Nazgul Akhtaeva; Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa; Amani Rashed Al-Othman; Rajaa Al-Raddadi; Fadia Al Buhairan; Shahla Al Dhukair; Mohamed M Ali; Osman Ali; Ala'a Alkerwi; Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol; Eman Aly; Deepak N Amarapurkar; Philippe Amouyel; Antoinette Amuzu; Lars Bo Andersen; Sigmund A Anderssen; Dolores S Andrade; Lars H Ängquist; Ranjit Mohan Anjana; Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri; Joana Araújo; Inger Ariansen; Tahir Aris; Nimmathota Arlappa; Dominique Arveiler; Krishna K Aryal; Thor Aspelund; Felix K Assah; Maria Cecília F Assunção; May Soe Aung; Mária Avdicová; Ana Azevedo; Fereidoun Azizi; Bontha V Babu; Suhad Bahijri; Jennifer L Baker; Nagalla Balakrishna; Mohamed Bamoshmoosh; Maciej Banach; Piotr Bandosz; José R Banegas; Carlo M Barbagallo; Alberto Barceló; Amina Barkat; Aluisio JD Barros; Mauro VG Barros; Iqbal Bata; Anwar M Batieha; Rosangela L Batista; Assembekov Batyrbek; Louise A Baur; Robert Beaglehole; Habiba Ben Romdhane; Judith Benedics; Mikhail Benet; James E Bennett; Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz; Gailute Bernotiene; Heloisa Bettiol; Aroor Bhagyalaxmi; Sumit Bharadwaj; Santosh K Bhargava; Zaid Bhatti; Zulfiqar A Bhutta; Hongsheng Bi; Yufang Bi; Anna Biehl; Mukharram Bikbov; Bihungum Bista; Dusko J Bjelica; Peter Bjerregaard; Espen Bjertness; Marius B Bjertness; Cecilia Björkelund; Anneke Blokstra; Simona Bo; Martin Bobak; Lynne M Boddy; Bernhard O Boehm; Heiner Boeing; Jose G Boggia; Carlos P Boissonnet; Marialaura Bonaccio; Vanina Bongard; Pascal Bovet; Lien Braeckevelt; Lutgart Braeckman; Marjolijn CE Bragt; Imperia Brajkovich; Francesco Branca; Juergen Breckenkamp; João Breda; Hermann Brenner; Lizzy M Brewster; Garry R Brian; Lacramioara Brinduse; Graziella Bruno; H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita; Anna Bugge; Marta Buoncristiano; Genc Burazeri; Con Burns; Antonio Cabrera de León; Joseph Cacciottolo; Hui Cai; Tilema Cama; Christine Cameron; José Camolas; Günay Can; Ana Paula C Cândido; Mario Capanzana; Vincenzo Capuano; Viviane C Cardoso; Axel C Carlsson; Maria J Carvalho; Felipe F Casanueva; Juan-Pablo Casas; Carmelo A Caserta; Snehalatha Chamukuttan; Angelique W Chan; Queenie Chan; Himanshu K Chaturvedi; Nishi Chaturvedi; Chien-Jen Chen; Fangfang Chen; Huashuai Chen; Shuohua Chen; Zhengming Chen; Ching-Yu Cheng; Angela Chetrit; Ekaterina Chikova-Iscener; Arnaud Chiolero; Shu-Ti Chiou; Adela Chirita-Emandi; María-Dolores Chirlaque; Belong Cho; Yumi Cho; Kaare Christensen; Diego G Christofaro; Jerzy Chudek; Renata Cifkova; Eliza Cinteza; Frank Claessens; Els Clays; Hans Concin; Susana C Confortin; Cyrus Cooper; Rachel Cooper; Tara C Coppinger; Simona Costanzo; Dominique Cottel; Chris Cowell; Cora L Craig; Ana B Crujeiras; Alexandra Cucu; Graziella D'Arrigo; Eleonora d'Orsi; Jean Dallongeville; Albertino Damasceno; Camilla T Damsgaard; Goodarz Danaei; Rachel Dankner; Thomas M Dantoft; Saeed Dastgiri; Luc Dauchet; Kairat Davletov; Guy De Backer; Dirk De Bacquer; Amalia De Curtis; Giovanni de Gaetano; Stefaan De Henauw; Paula Duarte de Oliveira; Karin De Ridder; Delphine De Smedt; Mohan Deepa; Alexander D Deev; Abbas Dehghan; Hélène Delisle; Francis Delpeuch; Valérie Deschamps; Klodian Dhana; Augusto F Di Castelnuovo; Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa; Alejandro Diaz; Zivka Dika; Shirin Djalalinia; Ha TP Do; Annette J Dobson; Maria Benedetta Donati; Chiara Donfrancesco; Silvana P Donoso; Angela Döring; Maria Dorobantu; Ahmad Reza Dorosty; Kouamelan Doua; Wojciech Drygas; Jia Li Duan; Charmaine Duante; Vesselka Duleva; Virginija Dulskiene; Vilnis Dzerve; Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk; Eruke E Egbagbe; Robert Eggertsen; Gabriele Eiben; Ulf Ekelund; Jalila El Ati; Paul Elliott; Reina Engle-Stone; Rajiv T Erasmus; Cihangir Erem; Louise Eriksen; Johan G Eriksson; Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña; Alun Evans; David Faeh; Caroline H Fall; Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo; Farshad Farzadfar; Francisco J Felix-Redondo; Trevor S Ferguson; Romulo A Fernandes; Daniel Fernández-Bergés; Daniel Ferrante; Marika Ferrari; Catterina Ferreccio; Jean Ferrieres; Joseph D Finn; Krista Fischer; Eric Monterubio Flores; Bernhard Föger; Leng Huat Foo; Ann-Sofie Forslund; Maria Forsner; Heba M Fouad; Damian K Francis; Maria do Carmo Franco; Oscar H Franco; Guillermo Frontera; Flavio D Fuchs; Sandra C Fuchs; Yuki Fujita; Takuro Furusawa; Zbigniew Gaciong; Mihai Gafencu; Daniela Galeone; Fabio Galvano; Manoli Garcia-de-la-Hera; Dickman Gareta; Sarah P Garnett; Jean-Michel Gaspoz; Magda Gasull; Louise Gates; Harald Geiger; Johanna M Geleijnse; Anoosheh Ghasemian; Simona Giampaoli; Francesco Gianfagna; Tiffany K Gill; Jonathan Giovannelli; 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Ruzena Kubinova; Renata Kuciene; Diana Kuh; Urho M Kujala; Zbigniew Kulaga; R Krishna Kumar; Marie Kunešová; Pawel Kurjata; Yadlapalli S Kusuma; Kari Kuulasmaa; Catherine Kyobutungi; Quang Ngoc La; Fatima Zahra Laamiri; Tiina Laatikainen; Carl Lachat; Youcef Laid; Tai Hing Lam; Orlando Landrove; Vera Lanska; Georg Lappas; Bagher Larijani; Lars E Laugsand; Laura Lauria; Avula Laxmaiah; Khanh Le Nguyen Bao; Tuyen D Le; May Antonnette O Lebanan; Catherine Leclercq; Jeannette Lee; Jeonghee Lee; Terho Lehtimäki; Luz M León-Muñoz; Naomi S Levitt; Yanping Li; Christa L Lilly; Wei-Yen Lim; M Fernanda Lima-Costa; Hsien-Ho Lin; Xu Lin; Lars Lind; Allan Linneberg; Lauren Lissner; Mieczyslaw Litwin; Jing Liu; Helle-Mai Loit; Luis Lopes; Roberto Lorbeer; Paulo A Lotufo; José Eugenio Lozano; Dalia Luksiene; Annamari Lundqvist; Nuno Lunet; Per Lytsy; Guansheng Ma; Jun Ma; George LL Machado-Coelho; Aristides M Machado-Rodrigues; Suka Machi; Stefania Maggi; Dianna J Magliano; Emmanuella Magriplis; Alagappan Mahaletchumy; 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Jordi Sunyer; Paibul Suriyawongpaisal; Boyd A Swinburn; Rody G Sy; Lucjan Szponar; E Shyong Tai; Mari-Liis Tammesoo; Abdonas Tamosiunas; Eng Joo Tan; Xun Tang; Frank Tanser; Yong Tao; Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh; Jakob Tarp; Carolina B Tarqui-Mamani; Oana-Florentina Tautu; Radka Taxová Braunerová; Anne Taylor; Félicité Tchibindat; Holger Theobald; Xenophon Theodoridis; Lutgarde Thijs; Betina H Thuesen; Anne Tjonneland; Hanna K Tolonen; Janne S Tolstrup; Murat Topbas; Roman Topór-Madry; María José Tormo; Michael J Tornaritis; Maties Torrent; Stefania Toselli; Pierre Traissac; Dimitrios Trichopoulos; Antonia Trichopoulou; Oanh TH Trinh; Atul Trivedi; Lechaba Tshepo; Maria Tsigga; Shoichiro Tsugane; Marshall K Tulloch-Reid; Fikru Tullu; Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Maria L Turley; Per Tynelius; Themistoklis Tzotzas; Christophe Tzourio; Peter Ueda; Eunice E Ugel; Flora AM Ukoli; Hanno Ulmer; Belgin Unal; Hannu MT Uusitalo; Gonzalo Valdivia; Susana Vale; Damaskini Valvi; Yvonne T van der Schouw; Koen Van Herck; Hoang Van Minh; Lenie van Rossem; Natasja M Van Schoor; Irene GM van Valkengoed; Dirk Vanderschueren; Diego Vanuzzo; Lars Vatten; Tomas Vega; Toomas Veidebaum; Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez; Biruta Velika; Giovanni Veronesi; WM Monique Verschuren; Cesar G Victora; Giovanni Viegi; Lucie Viet; Eira Viikari-Juntura; Paolo Vineis; Jesus Vioque; Jyrki K Virtanen; Sophie Visvikis-Siest; Bharathi Viswanathan; Tiina Vlasoff; Peter Vollenweider; Henry Völzke; Sari Voutilainen; Martine Vrijheid; Alisha N Wade; Aline Wagner; Thomas Waldhör; Janette Walton; Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Rildo S Wanderley; Ming-Dong Wang; Qian Wang; Ya Xing Wang; Ying-Wei Wang; S Goya Wannamethee; Nicholas Wareham; Adelheid Weber; Niels Wedderkopp; Deepa Weerasekera; Peter H Whincup; Kurt Widhalm; Indah S Widyahening; Andrzej Wiecek; Alet H Wijga; Rainford J Wilks; Johann Willeit; Peter Willeit; Tom Wilsgaard; Bogdan Wojtyniak; Roy A Wong-McClure; Justin YY Wong; Jyh Eiin Wong; Tien Yin Wong; Jean Woo; Mark Woodward; Frederick C Wu; Jianfeng Wu; Shouling Wu; Haiquan Xu; Liang Xu; Uruwan Yamborisut; Weili Yan; Xiaoguang Yang; Nazan Yardim; Xingwang Ye; Panayiotis K Yiallouros; Agneta Yngve; Akihiro Yoshihara; Qi Sheng You; Novie O Younger-Coleman; Faudzi Yusoff; Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff; Luciana Zaccagni; Vassilis Zafiropulos; Ahmad A Zainuddin; Sabina Zambon; Antonis Zampelas; Hana Zamrazilová; Tomasz Zdrojewski; Yi Zeng; Dong Zhao; Wenhua Zhao; Wei Zheng; Yingfeng Zheng; Bekbolat Zholdin; Maigeng Zhou; Dan Zhu; Baurzhan Zhussupov; Esther Zimmermann; Julio Zuñiga Cisneros; James Bentham; Mariachiara Di Cesare; Ver Bilano; Honor Bixby; Bin Zhou; Gretchen A Stevens; Leanne M Riley; Cristina Taddei; Kaveh Hajifathalian; Yuan Lu; Stefan Savin; Melanie J Cowan; Christopher J Paciorek; Andre Pascal Kengne; Aubrianna Zhu; Majid Ezzati

The Lancet, Volume: 390, Pages: 2627 - 2642

Swansea University Author: Gareth, Stratton

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Abstract

SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to ob...

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Published in: The Lancet
ISSN: 0140-6736
Published: 2017
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa36049
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>36049</id><entry>2017-10-13</entry><title>Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128&#xB7;9 million children, adolescents, and adults</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01</sid><ORCID>0000-0001-5618-0803</ORCID><firstname>Gareth</firstname><surname>Stratton</surname><name>Gareth Stratton</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2017-10-13</date><deptcode>STSC</deptcode><abstract>SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128&#xB7;9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31&#xB7;5 million aged 5&#x2013;19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5&#x2013;19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (&#x2212;0&#xB7;01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval &#x2212;0&#xB7;42 to 0&#xB7;39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0&#xB7;5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1&#xB7;00 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;69&#x2013;1&#xB7;35, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0&#xB7;95 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;64&#x2013;1&#xB7;25, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0&#xB7;09 kg/m2 per decade (&#x2212;0&#xB7;33 to 0&#xB7;49, PP=0&#xB7;6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0&#xB7;77 kg/m2 per decade (0&#xB7;50&#x2013;1&#xB7;06, PP&amp;#62;0&#xB7;9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0&#xB7;7% (0&#xB7;4&#x2013;1&#xB7;2) in 1975 to 5&#xB7;6% (4&#xB7;8&#x2013;6&#xB7;5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0&#xB7;9% (0&#xB7;5&#x2013;1&#xB7;3) in 1975 to 7&#xB7;8% (6&#xB7;7&#x2013;9&#xB7;1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9&#xB7;2% (6&#xB7;0&#x2013;12&#xB7;9) in 1975 to 8&#xB7;4% (6&#xB7;8&#x2013;10&#xB7;1) in 2016 in girls and from 14&#xB7;8% (10&#xB7;4&#x2013;19&#xB7;5) in 1975 to 12&#xB7;4% (10&#xB7;3&#x2013;14&#xB7;5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22&#xB7;7% (16&#xB7;7&#x2013;29&#xB7;6) among girls and 30&#xB7;7% (23&#xB7;5&#x2013;38&#xB7;0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44&#x2013;117) million girls and 117 (70&#x2013;178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24&#x2013;89) million girls and 74 (39&#x2013;125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>The Lancet</journal><volume>390</volume><paginationStart>2627</paginationStart><paginationEnd>2642</paginationEnd><publisher/><issnPrint>0140-6736</issnPrint><keywords/><publishedDay>31</publishedDay><publishedMonth>12</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2017</publishedYear><publishedDate>2017-12-31</publishedDate><doi>10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Sports Science</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>STSC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862</lastEdited><Created>2017-10-13T15:47:15.3331857</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Engineering</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Leandra</firstname><surname>Abarca-G&#xF3;mez</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Ziad A</firstname><surname>Abdeen</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Zargar Abdul</firstname><surname>Hamid</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Niveen M</firstname><surname>Abu-Rmeileh</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Benjamin</firstname><surname>Acosta-Cazares</surname><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Cecilia</firstname><surname>Acuin</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>Robert 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spelling 2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862 v2 36049 2017-10-13 Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01 0000-0001-5618-0803 Gareth Stratton Gareth Stratton true false 2017-10-13 STSC SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP&#62;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults. Journal Article The Lancet 390 2627 2642 0140-6736 31 12 2017 2017-12-31 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3 COLLEGE NANME Sports Science COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2020-08-06T16:11:59.9724862 2017-10-13T15:47:15.3331857 College of Engineering Engineering Leandra Abarca-Gómez 1 Ziad A Abdeen 2 Zargar Abdul Hamid 3 Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh 4 Benjamin Acosta-Cazares 5 Cecilia Acuin 6 Robert J Adams 7 Wichai Aekplakorn 8 Kaosar Afsana 9 Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas 10 Charles Agyemang 11 Alireza Ahmadvand 12 Wolfgang Ahrens 13 Kamel Ajlouni 14 Nazgul Akhtaeva 15 Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa 16 Amani Rashed Al-Othman 17 Rajaa Al-Raddadi 18 Fadia Al Buhairan 19 Shahla Al Dhukair 20 Mohamed M Ali 21 Osman Ali 22 Ala'a Alkerwi 23 Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol 24 Eman Aly 25 Deepak N Amarapurkar 26 Philippe Amouyel 27 Antoinette Amuzu 28 Lars Bo Andersen 29 Sigmund A Anderssen 30 Dolores S Andrade 31 Lars H Ängquist 32 Ranjit Mohan Anjana 33 Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri 34 Joana Araújo 35 Inger Ariansen 36 Tahir Aris 37 Nimmathota Arlappa 38 Dominique Arveiler 39 Krishna K Aryal 40 Thor Aspelund 41 Felix K Assah 42 Maria Cecília F Assunção 43 May Soe Aung 44 Mária Avdicová 45 Ana Azevedo 46 Fereidoun Azizi 47 Bontha V Babu 48 Suhad Bahijri 49 Jennifer L Baker 50 Nagalla Balakrishna 51 Mohamed Bamoshmoosh 52 Maciej Banach 53 Piotr Bandosz 54 José R Banegas 55 Carlo M Barbagallo 56 Alberto Barceló 57 Amina Barkat 58 Aluisio JD Barros 59 Mauro VG Barros 60 Iqbal Bata 61 Anwar M Batieha 62 Rosangela L Batista 63 Assembekov Batyrbek 64 Louise A Baur 65 Robert Beaglehole 66 Habiba Ben Romdhane 67 Judith Benedics 68 Mikhail Benet 69 James E Bennett 70 Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz 71 Gailute Bernotiene 72 Heloisa Bettiol 73 Aroor Bhagyalaxmi 74 Sumit Bharadwaj 75 Santosh K Bhargava 76 Zaid Bhatti 77 Zulfiqar A Bhutta 78 Hongsheng Bi 79 Yufang Bi 80 Anna Biehl 81 Mukharram Bikbov 82 Bihungum Bista 83 Dusko J Bjelica 84 Peter Bjerregaard 85 Espen Bjertness 86 Marius B Bjertness 87 Cecilia Björkelund 88 Anneke Blokstra 89 Simona Bo 90 Martin Bobak 91 Lynne M Boddy 92 Bernhard O Boehm 93 Heiner Boeing 94 Jose G Boggia 95 Carlos P Boissonnet 96 Marialaura Bonaccio 97 Vanina Bongard 98 Pascal Bovet 99 Lien Braeckevelt 100 Lutgart Braeckman 101 Marjolijn CE Bragt 102 Imperia Brajkovich 103 Francesco Branca 104 Juergen Breckenkamp 105 João Breda 106 Hermann Brenner 107 Lizzy M Brewster 108 Garry R Brian 109 Lacramioara Brinduse 110 Graziella Bruno 111 H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita 112 Anna Bugge 113 Marta Buoncristiano 114 Genc Burazeri 115 Con Burns 116 Antonio Cabrera de León 117 Joseph Cacciottolo 118 Hui Cai 119 Tilema Cama 120 Christine Cameron 121 José Camolas 122 Günay Can 123 Ana Paula C Cândido 124 Mario Capanzana 125 Vincenzo Capuano 126 Viviane C Cardoso 127 Axel C Carlsson 128 Maria J Carvalho 129 Felipe F Casanueva 130 Juan-Pablo Casas 131 Carmelo A Caserta 132 Snehalatha Chamukuttan 133 Angelique W Chan 134 Queenie Chan 135 Himanshu K Chaturvedi 136 Nishi Chaturvedi 137 Chien-Jen Chen 138 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576 Line T Møllehave 577 Niels C Møller 578 Dénes Molnár 579 Amirabbas Momenan 580 Charles K Mondo 581 Eric A Monterrubio 582 Kotsedi Daniel K Monyeki 583 Jin Soo Moon 584 Leila B Moreira 585 Alain Morejon 586 Luis A Moreno 587 Karen Morgan 588 Erik Lykke Mortensen 589 George Moschonis 590 Malgorzata Mossakowska 591 Aya Mostafa 592 Jorge Mota 593 Anabela Mota-Pinto 594 Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh 595 Jorge Motta 596 Thet Thet Mu 597 Magdalena Muc 598 Maria Lorenza Muiesan 599 Martina Müller-Nurasyid 600 Neil Murphy 601 Jaakko Mursu 602 Elaine M Murtagh 603 Vera Musil 604 Iraj Nabipour 605 Gabriele Nagel 606 Balkish M Naidu 607 Harunobu Nakamura 608 Jana Námešná 609 Ei Ei K Nang 610 Vinay B Nangia 611 Martin Nankap 612 Sameer Narake 613 Paola Nardone 614 Eva Maria Navarrete-Muñoz 615 William A Neal 616 Ilona Nenko 617 Martin Neovius 618 Flavio Nervi 619 Chung T Nguyen 620 Nguyen D Nguyen 621 Quang Ngoc Nguyen 622 Ramfis E Nieto-Martínez 623 Guang Ning 624 Toshiharu Ninomiya 625 Sania Nishtar 626 Marianna Noale 627 Oscar A Noboa 628 Teresa Norat 629 Sawada Norie 630 Davide Noto 631 Mohannad Al Nsour 632 Dermot O'Reilly 633 Galina Obreja 634 Eiji Oda 635 Glenn Oehlers 636 Kyungwon Oh 637 Kumiko Ohara 638 Örn Olafsson 639 Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto 640 Isabel O Oliveira 641 Maciej Oltarzewski 642 Mohd Azahadi Omar 643 Altan Onat 644 Sok King Ong 645 Lariane M Ono 646 Pedro Ordunez 647 Rui Ornelas 648 Ana P Ortiz 649 Merete Osler 650 Clive Osmond 651 Sergej M Ostojic 652 Afshin Ostovar 653 Johanna A Otero 654 Kim Overvad 655 Ellis Owusu-Dabo 656 Fred Michel Paccaud 657 Cristina Padez 658 Elena Pahomova 659 Andrzej Pajak 660 Domenico Palli 661 Alberto Palloni 662 Luigi Palmieri 663 Wen-Harn Pan 664 Songhomitra Panda-Jonas 665 Arvind Pandey 666 Francesco Panza 667 Dimitrios Papandreou 668 Soon-Woo Park 669 Winsome R Parnell 670 Mahboubeh Parsaeian 671 Ionela M Pascanu 672 Nikhil D Patel 673 Ivan Pecin 674 Mangesh S Pednekar 675 Nasheeta Peer 676 Petra H Peeters 677 Sergio Viana Peixoto 678 Markku Peltonen 679 Alexandre C Pereira 680 Napoleon Perez-Farinos 681 Cynthia M Pérez 682 Annette Peters 683 Janina Petkeviciene 684 Ausra Petrauskiene 685 Niloofar Peykari 686 Son Thai Pham 687 Daniela Pierannunzio 688 Iris Pigeot 689 Hynek Pikhart 690 Aida Pilav 691 Lorenza Pilotto 692 Francesco Pistelli 693 Freda Pitakaka 694 Aleksandra Piwonska 695 Pedro Plans-Rubió 696 Bee Koon Poh 697 Hermann Pohlabeln 698 Raluca M Pop 699 Stevo R Popovic 700 Miquel Porta 701 Marileen LP Portegies 702 Georg Posch 703 Dimitrios Poulimeneas 704 Hamed Pouraram 705 Akram Pourshams 706 Hossein Poustchi 707 Rajendra Pradeepa 708 Mathur Prashant 709 Jacqueline F Price 710 Jardena J Puder 711 Iveta Pudule 712 Maria Puiu 713 Margus Punab 714 Radwan F Qasrawi 715 Mostafa Qorbani 716 Tran Quoc Bao 717 Ivana Radic 718 Ricardas Radisauskas 719 Mahfuzar Rahman 720 Mahmudur Rahman 721 Olli Raitakari 722 Manu Raj 723 Sudha Ramachandra Rao 724 Ambady Ramachandran 725 Jacqueline Ramke 726 Elisabete Ramos 727 Rafel Ramos 728 Lekhraj Rampal 729 Sanjay Rampal 730 Ramon A Rascon-Pacheco 731 Josep Redon 732 Paul Ferdinand M Reganit 733 Lourdes Ribas-Barba 734 Robespierre Ribeiro 735 Elio Riboli 736 Fernando Rigo 737 Tobias F Rinke de Wit 738 Ana Rito 739 Raphael M Ritti-Dias 740 Juan A Rivera 741 Sian M Robinson 742 Cynthia Robitaille 743 Daniela Rodrigues 744 Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo 745 María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez 746 Laura A Rodríguez-Villamizar 747 Rosalba Rojas-Martinez 748 Nipa Rojroongwasinkul 749 Dora Romaguera 750 Kimmo Ronkainen 751 Annika Rosengren 752 Ian Rouse 753 Joel GR Roy 754 Adolfo Rubinstein 755 Frank J Rühli 756 Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt 757 Paola Russo 758 Marcin Rutkowski 759 Charumathi Sabanayagam 760 Harshpal S Sachdev 761 Olfa Saidi 762 Benoit Salanave 763 Eduardo Salazar Martinez 764 Diego Salmerón 765 Veikko Salomaa 766 Jukka T Salonen 767 Massimo Salvetti 768 Jose Sánchez-Abanto 769 Sandjaja 770 Susana Sans 771 Loreto Santa Marina 772 Diana A Santos 773 Ina S Santos 774 Osvaldo Santos 775 Renata Nunes dos Santos 776 Rute Santos 777 Jouko L Saramies 778 Luis B Sardinha 779 Nizal Sarrafzadegan 780 Kai-Uwe Saum 781 Savvas Savva 782 Mathilde Savy 783 Marcia Scazufca 784 Angelika Schaffrath Rosario 785 Herman Schargrodsky 786 Anja Schienkiewitz 787 Sabine Schipf 788 Carsten O Schmidt 789 Ida Maria Schmidt 790 Constance Schultsz 791 Aletta E Schutte 792 Aye Aye Sein 793 Abhijit Sen 794 Idowu O Senbanjo 795 Sadaf G Sepanlou 796 Luis Serra-Majem 797 Svetlana A Shalnova 798 Sanjib K Sharma 799 Jonathan E Shaw 800 Kenji Shibuya 801 Dong Wook Shin 802 Youchan Shin 803 Rahman Shiri 804 Alfonso Siani 805 Rosalynn Siantar 806 Abla M Sibai 807 Antonio M Silva 808 Diego Augusto Santos Silva 809 Mary Simon 810 Judith Simons 811 Leon A Simons 812 Agneta Sjöberg 813 Michael Sjöström 814 Sine Skovbjerg 815 Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer 816 Przemyslaw Slusarczyk 817 Liam Smeeth 818 Margaret C Smith 819 Marieke B Snijder 820 Hung-Kwan So 821 Eugène Sobngwi 822 Stefan Söderberg 823 Moesijanti YE Soekatri 824 Vincenzo Solfrizzi 825 Emily Sonestedt 826 Yi Song 827 Thorkild IA Sørensen 828 Maroje Soric 829 Charles Sossa Jérome 830 Aicha Soumare 831 Angela Spinelli 832 Igor Spiroski 833 Jan A Staessen 834 Hanspeter Stamm 835 Gregor Starc 836 Maria G Stathopoulou 837 Kaspar Staub 838 Bill Stavreski 839 Jostein Steene-Johannessen 840 Peter Stehle 841 Aryeh D Stein 842 George S Stergiou 843 Jochanan Stessman 844 Jutta Stieber 845 Doris Stöckl 846 Tanja Stocks 847 Jakub Stokwiszewski 848 Gareth Stratton 0000-0001-5618-0803 849 Karien Stronks 850 Maria Wany Strufaldi 851 Ramón Suárez-Medina 852 Chien-An Sun 853 Johan Sundström 854 Yn-Tz Sung 855 Jordi Sunyer 856 Paibul Suriyawongpaisal 857 Boyd A Swinburn 858 Rody G Sy 859 Lucjan Szponar 860 E Shyong Tai 861 Mari-Liis Tammesoo 862 Abdonas Tamosiunas 863 Eng Joo Tan 864 Xun Tang 865 Frank Tanser 866 Yong Tao 867 Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh 868 Jakob Tarp 869 Carolina B Tarqui-Mamani 870 Oana-Florentina Tautu 871 Radka Taxová Braunerová 872 Anne Taylor 873 Félicité Tchibindat 874 Holger Theobald 875 Xenophon Theodoridis 876 Lutgarde Thijs 877 Betina H Thuesen 878 Anne Tjonneland 879 Hanna K Tolonen 880 Janne S Tolstrup 881 Murat Topbas 882 Roman Topór-Madry 883 María José Tormo 884 Michael J Tornaritis 885 Maties Torrent 886 Stefania Toselli 887 Pierre Traissac 888 Dimitrios Trichopoulos 889 Antonia Trichopoulou 890 Oanh TH Trinh 891 Atul Trivedi 892 Lechaba Tshepo 893 Maria Tsigga 894 Shoichiro Tsugane 895 Marshall K Tulloch-Reid 896 Fikru Tullu 897 Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen 898 Jaakko Tuomilehto 899 Maria L Turley 900 Per Tynelius 901 Themistoklis Tzotzas 902 Christophe Tzourio 903 Peter Ueda 904 Eunice E Ugel 905 Flora AM Ukoli 906 Hanno Ulmer 907 Belgin Unal 908 Hannu MT Uusitalo 909 Gonzalo Valdivia 910 Susana Vale 911 Damaskini Valvi 912 Yvonne T van der Schouw 913 Koen Van Herck 914 Hoang Van Minh 915 Lenie van Rossem 916 Natasja M Van Schoor 917 Irene GM van Valkengoed 918 Dirk Vanderschueren 919 Diego Vanuzzo 920 Lars Vatten 921 Tomas Vega 922 Toomas Veidebaum 923 Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez 924 Biruta Velika 925 Giovanni Veronesi 926 WM Monique Verschuren 927 Cesar G Victora 928 Giovanni Viegi 929 Lucie Viet 930 Eira Viikari-Juntura 931 Paolo Vineis 932 Jesus Vioque 933 Jyrki K Virtanen 934 Sophie Visvikis-Siest 935 Bharathi Viswanathan 936 Tiina Vlasoff 937 Peter Vollenweider 938 Henry Völzke 939 Sari Voutilainen 940 Martine Vrijheid 941 Alisha N Wade 942 Aline Wagner 943 Thomas Waldhör 944 Janette Walton 945 Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar 946 Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud 947 Rildo S Wanderley 948 Ming-Dong Wang 949 Qian Wang 950 Ya Xing Wang 951 Ying-Wei Wang 952 S Goya Wannamethee 953 Nicholas Wareham 954 Adelheid Weber 955 Niels Wedderkopp 956 Deepa Weerasekera 957 Peter H Whincup 958 Kurt Widhalm 959 Indah S Widyahening 960 Andrzej Wiecek 961 Alet H Wijga 962 Rainford J Wilks 963 Johann Willeit 964 Peter Willeit 965 Tom Wilsgaard 966 Bogdan Wojtyniak 967 Roy A Wong-McClure 968 Justin YY Wong 969 Jyh Eiin Wong 970 Tien Yin Wong 971 Jean Woo 972 Mark Woodward 973 Frederick C Wu 974 Jianfeng Wu 975 Shouling Wu 976 Haiquan Xu 977 Liang Xu 978 Uruwan Yamborisut 979 Weili Yan 980 Xiaoguang Yang 981 Nazan Yardim 982 Xingwang Ye 983 Panayiotis K Yiallouros 984 Agneta Yngve 985 Akihiro Yoshihara 986 Qi Sheng You 987 Novie O Younger-Coleman 988 Faudzi Yusoff 989 Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff 990 Luciana Zaccagni 991 Vassilis Zafiropulos 992 Ahmad A Zainuddin 993 Sabina Zambon 994 Antonis Zampelas 995 Hana Zamrazilová 996 Tomasz Zdrojewski 997 Yi Zeng 998 Dong Zhao 999 Wenhua Zhao 1000 Wei Zheng 1001 Yingfeng Zheng 1002 Bekbolat Zholdin 1003 Maigeng Zhou 1004 Dan Zhu 1005 Baurzhan Zhussupov 1006 Esther Zimmermann 1007 Julio Zuñiga Cisneros 1008 James Bentham 1009 Mariachiara Di Cesare 1010 Ver Bilano 1011 Honor Bixby 1012 Bin Zhou 1013 Gretchen A Stevens 1014 Leanne M Riley 1015 Cristina Taddei 1016 Kaveh Hajifathalian 1017 Yuan Lu 1018 Stefan Savin 1019 Melanie J Cowan 1020 Christopher J Paciorek 1021 Adela Chirita-Emandi 1022 Alison J Hayes 1023 Joanne Katz 1024 Roya Kelishadi 1025 Andre Pascal Kengne 1026 Young-Ho Khang 1027 Avula Laxmaiah 1028 Yanping Li 1029 Jun Ma 1030 J Jaime Miranda 1031 Aya Mostafa 1032 Martin Neovius 1033 Cristina Padez 1034 Lekhraj Rampal 1035 Aubrianna Zhu 1036 James E Bennett 1037 Goodarz Danaei 1038 Zulfiqar A Bhutta 1039 Majid Ezzati 1040 0036049-13102017155123.pdf stratton2017.pdf 2017-10-13T15:51:23.4070000 Output 2524645 application/pdf Version of Record true This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. true eng
title Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
spellingShingle Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
Gareth, Stratton
title_short Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_full Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_fullStr Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_full_unstemmed Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
title_sort Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128·9 million children, adolescents, and adults
author_id_str_mv 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01
author_id_fullname_str_mv 6d62b2ed126961bed81a94a2beba8a01_***_Gareth, Stratton
author Gareth, Stratton
author2 Leandra Abarca-Gómez
Ziad A Abdeen
Zargar Abdul Hamid
Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh
Benjamin Acosta-Cazares
Cecilia Acuin
Robert J Adams
Wichai Aekplakorn
Kaosar Afsana
Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas
Charles Agyemang
Alireza Ahmadvand
Wolfgang Ahrens
Kamel Ajlouni
Nazgul Akhtaeva
Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa
Amani Rashed Al-Othman
Rajaa Al-Raddadi
Fadia Al Buhairan
Shahla Al Dhukair
Mohamed M Ali
Osman Ali
Ala'a Alkerwi
Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol
Eman Aly
Deepak N Amarapurkar
Philippe Amouyel
Antoinette Amuzu
Lars Bo Andersen
Sigmund A Anderssen
Dolores S Andrade
Lars H Ängquist
Ranjit Mohan Anjana
Hajer Aounallah-Skhiri
Joana Araújo
Inger Ariansen
Tahir Aris
Nimmathota Arlappa
Dominique Arveiler
Krishna K Aryal
Thor Aspelund
Felix K Assah
Maria Cecília F Assunção
May Soe Aung
Mária Avdicová
Ana Azevedo
Fereidoun Azizi
Bontha V Babu
Suhad Bahijri
Jennifer L Baker
Nagalla Balakrishna
Mohamed Bamoshmoosh
Maciej Banach
Piotr Bandosz
José R Banegas
Carlo M Barbagallo
Alberto Barceló
Amina Barkat
Aluisio JD Barros
Mauro VG Barros
Iqbal Bata
Anwar M Batieha
Rosangela L Batista
Assembekov Batyrbek
Louise A Baur
Robert Beaglehole
Habiba Ben Romdhane
Judith Benedics
Mikhail Benet
James E Bennett
Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz
Gailute Bernotiene
Heloisa Bettiol
Aroor Bhagyalaxmi
Sumit Bharadwaj
Santosh K Bhargava
Zaid Bhatti
Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Hongsheng Bi
Yufang Bi
Anna Biehl
Mukharram Bikbov
Bihungum Bista
Dusko J Bjelica
Peter Bjerregaard
Espen Bjertness
Marius B Bjertness
Cecilia Björkelund
Anneke Blokstra
Simona Bo
Martin Bobak
Lynne M Boddy
Bernhard O Boehm
Heiner Boeing
Jose G Boggia
Carlos P Boissonnet
Marialaura Bonaccio
Vanina Bongard
Pascal Bovet
Lien Braeckevelt
Lutgart Braeckman
Marjolijn CE Bragt
Imperia Brajkovich
Francesco Branca
Juergen Breckenkamp
João Breda
Hermann Brenner
Lizzy M Brewster
Garry R Brian
Lacramioara Brinduse
Graziella Bruno
H B(as) Bueno-de-Mesquita
Anna Bugge
Marta Buoncristiano
Genc Burazeri
Con Burns
Antonio Cabrera de León
Joseph Cacciottolo
Hui Cai
Tilema Cama
Christine Cameron
José Camolas
Günay Can
Ana Paula C Cândido
Mario Capanzana
Vincenzo Capuano
Viviane C Cardoso
Axel C Carlsson
Maria J Carvalho
Felipe F Casanueva
Juan-Pablo Casas
Carmelo A Caserta
Snehalatha Chamukuttan
Angelique W Chan
Queenie Chan
Himanshu K Chaturvedi
Nishi Chaturvedi
Chien-Jen Chen
Fangfang Chen
Huashuai Chen
Shuohua Chen
Zhengming Chen
Ching-Yu Cheng
Angela Chetrit
Ekaterina Chikova-Iscener
Arnaud Chiolero
Shu-Ti Chiou
Adela Chirita-Emandi
María-Dolores Chirlaque
Belong Cho
Yumi Cho
Kaare Christensen
Diego G Christofaro
Jerzy Chudek
Renata Cifkova
Eliza Cinteza
Frank Claessens
Els Clays
Hans Concin
Susana C Confortin
Cyrus Cooper
Rachel Cooper
Tara C Coppinger
Simona Costanzo
Dominique Cottel
Chris Cowell
Cora L Craig
Ana B Crujeiras
Alexandra Cucu
Graziella D'Arrigo
Eleonora d'Orsi
Jean Dallongeville
Albertino Damasceno
Camilla T Damsgaard
Goodarz Danaei
Rachel Dankner
Thomas M Dantoft
Saeed Dastgiri
Luc Dauchet
Kairat Davletov
Guy De Backer
Dirk De Bacquer
Amalia De Curtis
Giovanni de Gaetano
Stefaan De Henauw
Paula Duarte de Oliveira
Karin De Ridder
Delphine De Smedt
Mohan Deepa
Alexander D Deev
Abbas Dehghan
Hélène Delisle
Francis Delpeuch
Valérie Deschamps
Klodian Dhana
Augusto F Di Castelnuovo
Juvenal Soares Dias-da-Costa
Alejandro Diaz
Zivka Dika
Shirin Djalalinia
Ha TP Do
Annette J Dobson
Maria Benedetta Donati
Chiara Donfrancesco
Silvana P Donoso
Angela Döring
Maria Dorobantu
Ahmad Reza Dorosty
Kouamelan Doua
Wojciech Drygas
Jia Li Duan
Charmaine Duante
Vesselka Duleva
Virginija Dulskiene
Vilnis Dzerve
Elzbieta Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk
Eruke E Egbagbe
Robert Eggertsen
Gabriele Eiben
Ulf Ekelund
Jalila El Ati
Paul Elliott
Reina Engle-Stone
Rajiv T Erasmus
Cihangir Erem
Louise Eriksen
Johan G Eriksson
Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña
Alun Evans
David Faeh
Caroline H Fall
Victoria Farrugia Sant'Angelo
Farshad Farzadfar
Francisco J Felix-Redondo
Trevor S Ferguson
Romulo A Fernandes
Daniel Fernández-Bergés
Daniel Ferrante
Marika Ferrari
Catterina Ferreccio
Jean Ferrieres
Joseph D Finn
Krista Fischer
Eric Monterubio Flores
Bernhard Föger
Leng Huat Foo
Ann-Sofie Forslund
Maria Forsner
Heba M Fouad
Damian K Francis
Maria do Carmo Franco
Oscar H Franco
Guillermo Frontera
Flavio D Fuchs
Sandra C Fuchs
Yuki Fujita
Takuro Furusawa
Zbigniew Gaciong
Mihai Gafencu
Daniela Galeone
Fabio Galvano
Manoli Garcia-de-la-Hera
Dickman Gareta
Sarah P Garnett
Jean-Michel Gaspoz
Magda Gasull
Louise Gates
Harald Geiger
Johanna M Geleijnse
Anoosheh Ghasemian
Simona Giampaoli
Francesco Gianfagna
Tiffany K Gill
Jonathan Giovannelli
Aleksander Giwercman
Justyna Godos
Sibel Gogen
Rebecca A Goldsmith
David Goltzman
Helen Gonçalves
Margot González-Leon
Juan P González-Rivas
Marcela Gonzalez-Gross
Frederic Gottrand
Antonio Pedro Graça
Sidsel Graff-Iversen
Dušan Grafnetter
Aneta Grajda
Maria G Grammatikopoulou
Ronald D Gregor
Tomasz Grodzicki
Anders Grøntved
Giuseppe Grosso
Gabriella Gruden
Vera Grujic
Dongfeng Gu
Emanuela Gualdi-Russo
Pilar Guallar-Castillón
Ong Peng Guan
Elias F Gudmundsson
Vilmundur Gudnason
Ramiro Guerrero
Idris Guessous
Andre L Guimaraes
Martin C Gulliford
Johanna Gunnlaugsdottir
Marc Gunter
Xiuhua Guo
Yin Guo
Prakash C Gupta
Rajeev Gupta
Oye Gureje
Beata Gurzkowska
Laura Gutierrez
Felix Gutzwiller
Farzad Hadaegh
Charalambos A Hadjigeorgiou
Khairil Si-Ramlee
Jytte Halkjær
Ian R Hambleton
Rebecca Hardy
Rachakulla Hari Kumar
Maria Hassapidou
Jun Hata
Alison J Hayes
Jiang He
Regina Heidinger-Felso
Mirjam Heinen
Marleen Elisabeth Hendriks
Ana Henriques
Leticia Hernandez Cadena
Sauli Herrala
Victor M Herrera
Isabelle Herter-Aeberli
Ramin Heshmat
Ilpo Tapani Hihtaniemi
Sai Yin Ho
Suzanne C Ho
Michael Hobbs
Albert Hofman
Wilma M Hopman
Andrea RVR Horimoto
Claudia M Hormiga
Bernardo L Horta
Leila Houti
Christina Howitt
Thein Thein Htay
Aung Soe Htet
Maung Maung Than Htike
Yonghua Hu
José María Huerta
Constanta Huidumac Petrescu
Martijn Huisman
Abdullatif Husseini
Chinh Nguyen Huu
Inge Huybrechts
Nahla Hwalla
Jolanda Hyska
Licia Iacoviello
Anna G Iannone
Jesús M Ibarluzea
Mohsen M Ibrahim
Nayu Ikeda
M Arfan Ikram
Vilma E Irazola
Muhammad Islam
Aziz al-Safi Ismail
Vanja Ivkovic
Masanori Iwasaki
Rod T Jackson
Jeremy M Jacobs
Hashem Jaddou
Tazeen Jafar
Kazi M Jamil
Konrad Jamrozik
Imre Janszky
Juel Jarani
Grazyna Jasienska
Ana Jelakovic
Bojan Jelakovic
Garry Jennings
Seung-Lyeal Jeong
Chao Qiang Jiang
Santa Magaly Jiménez-Acosta
Michel Joffres
Mattias Johansson
Jost B Jonas
Torben Jørgensen
Pradeep Joshi
Dragana P Jovic
Jacek Józwiak
Anne Juolevi
Gregor Jurak
Vesna Jureša
Rudolf Kaaks
Anthony Kafatos
Eero O Kajantie
Ofra Kalter-Leibovici
Nor Azmi Kamaruddin
Efthymios Kapantais
Khem B Karki
Amir Kasaeian
Joanne Katz
Jussi Kauhanen
Prabhdeep Kaur
Maryam Kavousi
Gyulli Kazakbaeva
Ulrich Keil
Lital Keinan Boker
Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Roya Kelishadi
Cecily Kelleher
Han CG Kemper
Andre P Kengne
Alina Kerimkulova
Mathilde Kersting
Timothy Key
Yousef Saleh Khader
Davood Khalili
Young-Ho Khang
Mohammad Khateeb
Kay-Tee Khaw
Ilse MSL Khouw
Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
Stefan Kiechl
Japhet Killewo
Jeongseon Kim
Yeon-Yong Kim
Jeannette Klimont
Jurate Klumbiene
Michael Knoflach
Bhawesh Koirala
Elin Kolle
Patrick Kolsteren
Paul Korrovits
Jelena Kos
Seppo Koskinen
Katsuyasu Kouda
Viktoria A Kovacs
Sudhir Kowlessur
Slawomir Koziel
Wolfgang Kratzer
Susi Kriemler
Peter Lund Kristensen
Steinar Krokstad
Daan Kromhout
Herculina S Kruger
Ruzena Kubinova
Renata Kuciene
Diana Kuh
Urho M Kujala
Zbigniew Kulaga
R Krishna Kumar
Marie Kunešová
Pawel Kurjata
Yadlapalli S Kusuma
Kari Kuulasmaa
Catherine Kyobutungi
Quang Ngoc La
Fatima Zahra Laamiri
Tiina Laatikainen
Carl Lachat
Youcef Laid
Tai Hing Lam
Orlando Landrove
Vera Lanska
Georg Lappas
Bagher Larijani
Lars E Laugsand
Laura Lauria
Avula Laxmaiah
Khanh Le Nguyen Bao
Tuyen D Le
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Mohammad Esmaeel Motlagh
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Ramfis E Nieto-Martínez
Guang Ning
Toshiharu Ninomiya
Sania Nishtar
Marianna Noale
Oscar A Noboa
Teresa Norat
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Davide Noto
Mohannad Al Nsour
Dermot O'Reilly
Galina Obreja
Eiji Oda
Glenn Oehlers
Kyungwon Oh
Kumiko Ohara
Örn Olafsson
Maria Teresa Anselmo Olinto
Isabel O Oliveira
Maciej Oltarzewski
Mohd Azahadi Omar
Altan Onat
Sok King Ong
Lariane M Ono
Pedro Ordunez
Rui Ornelas
Ana P Ortiz
Merete Osler
Clive Osmond
Sergej M Ostojic
Afshin Ostovar
Johanna A Otero
Kim Overvad
Ellis Owusu-Dabo
Fred Michel Paccaud
Cristina Padez
Elena Pahomova
Andrzej Pajak
Domenico Palli
Alberto Palloni
Luigi Palmieri
Wen-Harn Pan
Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
Arvind Pandey
Francesco Panza
Dimitrios Papandreou
Soon-Woo Park
Winsome R Parnell
Mahboubeh Parsaeian
Ionela M Pascanu
Nikhil D Patel
Ivan Pecin
Mangesh S Pednekar
Nasheeta Peer
Petra H Peeters
Sergio Viana Peixoto
Markku Peltonen
Alexandre C Pereira
Napoleon Perez-Farinos
Cynthia M Pérez
Annette Peters
Janina Petkeviciene
Ausra Petrauskiene
Niloofar Peykari
Son Thai Pham
Daniela Pierannunzio
Iris Pigeot
Hynek Pikhart
Aida Pilav
Lorenza Pilotto
Francesco Pistelli
Freda Pitakaka
Aleksandra Piwonska
Pedro Plans-Rubió
Bee Koon Poh
Hermann Pohlabeln
Raluca M Pop
Stevo R Popovic
Miquel Porta
Marileen LP Portegies
Georg Posch
Dimitrios Poulimeneas
Hamed Pouraram
Akram Pourshams
Hossein Poustchi
Rajendra Pradeepa
Mathur Prashant
Jacqueline F Price
Jardena J Puder
Iveta Pudule
Maria Puiu
Margus Punab
Radwan F Qasrawi
Mostafa Qorbani
Tran Quoc Bao
Ivana Radic
Ricardas Radisauskas
Mahfuzar Rahman
Mahmudur Rahman
Olli Raitakari
Manu Raj
Sudha Ramachandra Rao
Ambady Ramachandran
Jacqueline Ramke
Elisabete Ramos
Rafel Ramos
Lekhraj Rampal
Sanjay Rampal
Ramon A Rascon-Pacheco
Josep Redon
Paul Ferdinand M Reganit
Lourdes Ribas-Barba
Robespierre Ribeiro
Elio Riboli
Fernando Rigo
Tobias F Rinke de Wit
Ana Rito
Raphael M Ritti-Dias
Juan A Rivera
Sian M Robinson
Cynthia Robitaille
Daniela Rodrigues
Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
María del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez
Laura A Rodríguez-Villamizar
Rosalba Rojas-Martinez
Nipa Rojroongwasinkul
Dora Romaguera
Kimmo Ronkainen
Annika Rosengren
Ian Rouse
Joel GR Roy
Adolfo Rubinstein
Frank J Rühli
Blanca Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt
Paola Russo
Marcin Rutkowski
Charumathi Sabanayagam
Harshpal S Sachdev
Olfa Saidi
Benoit Salanave
Eduardo Salazar Martinez
Diego Salmerón
Veikko Salomaa
Jukka T Salonen
Massimo Salvetti
Jose Sánchez-Abanto
Sandjaja
Susana Sans
Loreto Santa Marina
Diana A Santos
Ina S Santos
Osvaldo Santos
Renata Nunes dos Santos
Rute Santos
Jouko L Saramies
Luis B Sardinha
Nizal Sarrafzadegan
Kai-Uwe Saum
Savvas Savva
Mathilde Savy
Marcia Scazufca
Angelika Schaffrath Rosario
Herman Schargrodsky
Anja Schienkiewitz
Sabine Schipf
Carsten O Schmidt
Ida Maria Schmidt
Constance Schultsz
Aletta E Schutte
Aye Aye Sein
Abhijit Sen
Idowu O Senbanjo
Sadaf G Sepanlou
Luis Serra-Majem
Svetlana A Shalnova
Sanjib K Sharma
Jonathan E Shaw
Kenji Shibuya
Dong Wook Shin
Youchan Shin
Rahman Shiri
Alfonso Siani
Rosalynn Siantar
Abla M Sibai
Antonio M Silva
Diego Augusto Santos Silva
Mary Simon
Judith Simons
Leon A Simons
Agneta Sjöberg
Michael Sjöström
Sine Skovbjerg
Jolanta Slowikowska-Hilczer
Przemyslaw Slusarczyk
Liam Smeeth
Margaret C Smith
Marieke B Snijder
Hung-Kwan So
Eugène Sobngwi
Stefan Söderberg
Moesijanti YE Soekatri
Vincenzo Solfrizzi
Emily Sonestedt
Yi Song
Thorkild IA Sørensen
Maroje Soric
Charles Sossa Jérome
Aicha Soumare
Angela Spinelli
Igor Spiroski
Jan A Staessen
Hanspeter Stamm
Gregor Starc
Maria G Stathopoulou
Kaspar Staub
Bill Stavreski
Jostein Steene-Johannessen
Peter Stehle
Aryeh D Stein
George S Stergiou
Jochanan Stessman
Jutta Stieber
Doris Stöckl
Tanja Stocks
Jakub Stokwiszewski
Gareth Stratton
Karien Stronks
Maria Wany Strufaldi
Ramón Suárez-Medina
Chien-An Sun
Johan Sundström
Yn-Tz Sung
Jordi Sunyer
Paibul Suriyawongpaisal
Boyd A Swinburn
Rody G Sy
Lucjan Szponar
E Shyong Tai
Mari-Liis Tammesoo
Abdonas Tamosiunas
Eng Joo Tan
Xun Tang
Frank Tanser
Yong Tao
Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh
Jakob Tarp
Carolina B Tarqui-Mamani
Oana-Florentina Tautu
Radka Taxová Braunerová
Anne Taylor
Félicité Tchibindat
Holger Theobald
Xenophon Theodoridis
Lutgarde Thijs
Betina H Thuesen
Anne Tjonneland
Hanna K Tolonen
Janne S Tolstrup
Murat Topbas
Roman Topór-Madry
María José Tormo
Michael J Tornaritis
Maties Torrent
Stefania Toselli
Pierre Traissac
Dimitrios Trichopoulos
Antonia Trichopoulou
Oanh TH Trinh
Atul Trivedi
Lechaba Tshepo
Maria Tsigga
Shoichiro Tsugane
Marshall K Tulloch-Reid
Fikru Tullu
Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
Jaakko Tuomilehto
Maria L Turley
Per Tynelius
Themistoklis Tzotzas
Christophe Tzourio
Peter Ueda
Eunice E Ugel
Flora AM Ukoli
Hanno Ulmer
Belgin Unal
Hannu MT Uusitalo
Gonzalo Valdivia
Susana Vale
Damaskini Valvi
Yvonne T van der Schouw
Koen Van Herck
Hoang Van Minh
Lenie van Rossem
Natasja M Van Schoor
Irene GM van Valkengoed
Dirk Vanderschueren
Diego Vanuzzo
Lars Vatten
Tomas Vega
Toomas Veidebaum
Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez
Biruta Velika
Giovanni Veronesi
WM Monique Verschuren
Cesar G Victora
Giovanni Viegi
Lucie Viet
Eira Viikari-Juntura
Paolo Vineis
Jesus Vioque
Jyrki K Virtanen
Sophie Visvikis-Siest
Bharathi Viswanathan
Tiina Vlasoff
Peter Vollenweider
Henry Völzke
Sari Voutilainen
Martine Vrijheid
Alisha N Wade
Aline Wagner
Thomas Waldhör
Janette Walton
Wan Mohamad Wan Bebakar
Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud
Rildo S Wanderley
Ming-Dong Wang
Qian Wang
Ya Xing Wang
Ying-Wei Wang
S Goya Wannamethee
Nicholas Wareham
Adelheid Weber
Niels Wedderkopp
Deepa Weerasekera
Peter H Whincup
Kurt Widhalm
Indah S Widyahening
Andrzej Wiecek
Alet H Wijga
Rainford J Wilks
Johann Willeit
Peter Willeit
Tom Wilsgaard
Bogdan Wojtyniak
Roy A Wong-McClure
Justin YY Wong
Jyh Eiin Wong
Tien Yin Wong
Jean Woo
Mark Woodward
Frederick C Wu
Jianfeng Wu
Shouling Wu
Haiquan Xu
Liang Xu
Uruwan Yamborisut
Weili Yan
Xiaoguang Yang
Nazan Yardim
Xingwang Ye
Panayiotis K Yiallouros
Agneta Yngve
Akihiro Yoshihara
Qi Sheng You
Novie O Younger-Coleman
Faudzi Yusoff
Muhammad Fadhli M Yusoff
Luciana Zaccagni
Vassilis Zafiropulos
Ahmad A Zainuddin
Sabina Zambon
Antonis Zampelas
Hana Zamrazilová
Tomasz Zdrojewski
Yi Zeng
Dong Zhao
Wenhua Zhao
Wei Zheng
Yingfeng Zheng
Bekbolat Zholdin
Maigeng Zhou
Dan Zhu
Baurzhan Zhussupov
Esther Zimmermann
Julio Zuñiga Cisneros
James Bentham
Mariachiara Di Cesare
Ver Bilano
Honor Bixby
Bin Zhou
Gretchen A Stevens
Leanne M Riley
Cristina Taddei
Kaveh Hajifathalian
Yuan Lu
Stefan Savin
Melanie J Cowan
Christopher J Paciorek
Adela Chirita-Emandi
Alison J Hayes
Joanne Katz
Roya Kelishadi
Andre Pascal Kengne
Young-Ho Khang
Avula Laxmaiah
Yanping Li
Jun Ma
J Jaime Miranda
Aya Mostafa
Martin Neovius
Cristina Padez
Lekhraj Rampal
Aubrianna Zhu
James E Bennett
Goodarz Danaei
Zulfiqar A Bhutta
Majid Ezzati
format Journal article
container_title The Lancet
container_volume 390
container_start_page 2627
publishDate 2017
institution Swansea University
issn 0140-6736
doi_str_mv 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32129-3
college_str College of Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description SummaryBackgroundUnderweight, overweight, and obesity in childhood and adolescence are associated with adverse health consequences throughout the life-course. Our aim was to estimate worldwide trends in mean body-mass index (BMI) and a comprehensive set of BMI categories that cover underweight to obesity in children and adolescents, and to compare trends with those of adults.MethodsWe pooled 2416 population-based studies with measurements of height and weight on 128·9 million participants aged 5 years and older, including 31·5 million aged 5–19 years. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2016 in 200 countries for mean BMI and for prevalence of BMI in the following categories for children and adolescents aged 5–19 years: more than 2 SD below the median of the WHO growth reference for children and adolescents (referred to as moderate and severe underweight hereafter), 2 SD to more than 1 SD below the median (mild underweight), 1 SD below the median to 1 SD above the median (healthy weight), more than 1 SD to 2 SD above the median (overweight but not obese), and more than 2 SD above the median (obesity).FindingsRegional change in age-standardised mean BMI in girls from 1975 to 2016 ranged from virtually no change (−0·01 kg/m2 per decade; 95% credible interval −0·42 to 0·39, posterior probability [PP] of the observed decrease being a true decrease=0·5098) in eastern Europe to an increase of 1·00 kg/m2 per decade (0·69–1·35, PP&#62;0·9999) in central Latin America and an increase of 0·95 kg/m2 per decade (0·64–1·25, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. The range for boys was from a non-significant increase of 0·09 kg/m2 per decade (−0·33 to 0·49, PP=0·6926) in eastern Europe to an increase of 0·77 kg/m2 per decade (0·50–1·06, PP&#62;0·9999) in Polynesia and Micronesia. Trends in mean BMI have recently flattened in northwestern Europe and the high-income English-speaking and Asia-Pacific regions for both sexes, southwestern Europe for boys, and central and Andean Latin America for girls. By contrast, the rise in BMI has accelerated in east and south Asia for both sexes, and southeast Asia for boys. Global age-standardised prevalence of obesity increased from 0·7% (0·4–1·2) in 1975 to 5·6% (4·8–6·5) in 2016 in girls, and from 0·9% (0·5–1·3) in 1975 to 7·8% (6·7–9·1) in 2016 in boys; the prevalence of moderate and severe underweight decreased from 9·2% (6·0–12·9) in 1975 to 8·4% (6·8–10·1) in 2016 in girls and from 14·8% (10·4–19·5) in 1975 to 12·4% (10·3–14·5) in 2016 in boys. Prevalence of moderate and severe underweight was highest in India, at 22·7% (16·7–29·6) among girls and 30·7% (23·5–38·0) among boys. Prevalence of obesity was more than 30% in girls in Nauru, the Cook Islands, and Palau; and boys in the Cook Islands, Nauru, Palau, Niue, and American Samoa in 2016. Prevalence of obesity was about 20% or more in several countries in Polynesia and Micronesia, the Middle East and north Africa, the Caribbean, and the USA. In 2016, 75 (44–117) million girls and 117 (70–178) million boys worldwide were moderately or severely underweight. In the same year, 50 (24–89) million girls and 74 (39–125) million boys worldwide were obese.InterpretationThe rising trends in children's and adolescents' BMI have plateaued in many high-income countries, albeit at high levels, but have accelerated in parts of Asia, with trends no longer correlated with those of adults.
published_date 2017-12-31T03:56:02Z
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