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A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection / Ihsan, Al-affan; Richard, Hugtenburg

Journal of Radiological Protection

Swansea University Authors: Ihsan, Al-affan, Richard, Hugtenburg

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Abstract

Simulations with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to establish the possibility of using lead to cover the existing concrete walls of a linear accelerator treatment room maze, in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. In the present work, a pilot study performed a...

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Published in: Journal of Radiological Protection
ISSN: 1361-6498
Published: 2017
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa36273
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first_indexed 2017-10-26T13:34:22Z
last_indexed 2020-06-03T18:49:11Z
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spelling 2020-06-03T13:27:23.1842148 v2 36273 2017-10-26 A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection 8b20e64bf4213acb48ff8ceb777bfb1e Ihsan Al-affan Ihsan Al-affan true false efd2f52ea19cb047e01a01e6fa6fa54c 0000-0003-0352-9607 Richard Hugtenburg Richard Hugtenburg true false 2017-10-26 PMSC Simulations with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to establish the possibility of using lead to cover the existing concrete walls of a linear accelerator treatment room maze, in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. In the present work, a pilot study performed at Singleton Hospital in Swansea was used to pioneer the use of lead sheets of various thicknesses to absorb scattered low energy photons in the maze. The dose reduction was considered to be due to the strong effect of the photoelectric interaction in lead resulting in attenuation of the back-scattered photons. Calculations with FLUKA with mono-energetic photons were used to represent the main components of the X-ray spectrum up to 10 MV. The reason for using mono-energetic photons was to study the behaviour of each energy component from associated interaction processes. The results showed that adding lead of 1 to 4 mm thickness to the walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 80%. Subsequent scatter dose measurements performed at the maze entrance of an existing treatment room with 1.3 mm thickness of lead sheets added to the maze walls and floor supported the results from the simulations. The dose reduction at the maze entrance with the lead in place was up to 50%. The variation between simulation and measurement was attributed to the fact that insufficient lead was available to completely cover the maze walls and floor. This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimetres thickness of lead has implications for the design of linear accelerator treatment rooms since it has potential to provide savings, in terms of space and costs, when an existing maze requires upgrading in an environment where space is limited and the maze length cannot be extended sufficiently to reduce the dose. Journal Article Journal of Radiological Protection 1361-6498 31 10 2017 2017-10-31 10.1088/1361-6498/aa9128 COLLEGE NANME Medicine COLLEGE CODE PMSC Swansea University 2020-06-03T13:27:23.1842148 2017-10-26T10:37:52.7874082 Swansea University Medical School Medicine Ihsan Al-affan 1 Simon C Evans 2 Mohammed Qutub 3 Richard Hugtenburg 0000-0003-0352-9607 4 0036273-26102017103805.pdf Al-Affan-JRP-100959-v2.pdf 2017-10-26T10:38:05.5800000 Output 457860 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true 2018-10-05T00:00:00.0000000 As the Version of Record of this article is going to be/has been published on a subscription basis, this Accepted Manuscript will be available for reuse under a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 licence after a 12 month embargo period. true eng
title A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
spellingShingle A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
Ihsan, Al-affan
Richard, Hugtenburg
title_short A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
title_full A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
title_fullStr A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
title_full_unstemmed A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
title_sort A novel technique to optimise the length of a linear accelerator treatment room maze without compromising radiation protection
author_id_str_mv 8b20e64bf4213acb48ff8ceb777bfb1e
efd2f52ea19cb047e01a01e6fa6fa54c
author_id_fullname_str_mv 8b20e64bf4213acb48ff8ceb777bfb1e_***_Ihsan, Al-affan
efd2f52ea19cb047e01a01e6fa6fa54c_***_Richard, Hugtenburg
author Ihsan, Al-affan
Richard, Hugtenburg
format Journal article
container_title Journal of Radiological Protection
publishDate 2017
institution Swansea University
issn 1361-6498
doi_str_mv 10.1088/1361-6498/aa9128
college_str Swansea University Medical School
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hierarchy_top_id swanseauniversitymedicalschool
hierarchy_top_title Swansea University Medical School
hierarchy_parent_id swanseauniversitymedicalschool
hierarchy_parent_title Swansea University Medical School
department_str Medicine{{{_:::_}}}Swansea University Medical School{{{_:::_}}}Medicine
document_store_str 1
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description Simulations with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code were used to establish the possibility of using lead to cover the existing concrete walls of a linear accelerator treatment room maze, in order to reduce the dose of the scattered photons at the maze entrance. In the present work, a pilot study performed at Singleton Hospital in Swansea was used to pioneer the use of lead sheets of various thicknesses to absorb scattered low energy photons in the maze. The dose reduction was considered to be due to the strong effect of the photoelectric interaction in lead resulting in attenuation of the back-scattered photons. Calculations with FLUKA with mono-energetic photons were used to represent the main components of the X-ray spectrum up to 10 MV. The reason for using mono-energetic photons was to study the behaviour of each energy component from associated interaction processes. The results showed that adding lead of 1 to 4 mm thickness to the walls and floor of the maze reduced the dose at the maze entrance by up to 80%. Subsequent scatter dose measurements performed at the maze entrance of an existing treatment room with 1.3 mm thickness of lead sheets added to the maze walls and floor supported the results from the simulations. The dose reduction at the maze entrance with the lead in place was up to 50%. The variation between simulation and measurement was attributed to the fact that insufficient lead was available to completely cover the maze walls and floor. This novel proposal of covering part or the entire maze walls with a few millimetres thickness of lead has implications for the design of linear accelerator treatment rooms since it has potential to provide savings, in terms of space and costs, when an existing maze requires upgrading in an environment where space is limited and the maze length cannot be extended sufficiently to reduce the dose.
published_date 2017-10-31T19:54:51Z
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