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Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power

Christian J Cook, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Blair T Crewther

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports

Swansea University Author: Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.1111/sms.13041

Abstract

This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21)...

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Published in: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
ISSN: 0905-7188
Published: 2017
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa37595
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2018-01-09T10:35:25.5478313</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>37595</id><entry>2017-12-14</entry><title>Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98</sid><ORCID>0000-0001-9449-2293</ORCID><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><name>Liam Kilduff</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2017-12-14</date><deptcode>STSC</deptcode><abstract>This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17&#xB1;27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25&#xB1;43% on D21 (p&lt;0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (&gt;102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p&lt;0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p&lt;0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Scandinavian Journal of Medicine &amp; Science in Sports</journal><publisher/><issnPrint>0905-7188</issnPrint><keywords>Anabolic; Androgens; Trainability; Recovery; Adaptation</keywords><publishedDay>31</publishedDay><publishedMonth>12</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2017</publishedYear><publishedDate>2017-12-31</publishedDate><doi>10.1111/sms.13041</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Sport and Exercise Sciences</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>STSC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2018-01-09T10:35:25.5478313</lastEdited><Created>2017-12-14T14:27:22.4987660</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Engineering</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Christian J</firstname><surname>Cook</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9449-2293</orcid><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Blair T</firstname><surname>Crewther</surname><order>3</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>0037595-15122017085319.pdf</filename><originalFilename>cook2017.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2017-12-15T08:53:19.7930000</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>2320619</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Accepted Manuscript</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><embargoDate>2018-12-21T00:00:00.0000000</embargoDate><copyrightCorrect>false</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language></document></documents><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2018-01-09T10:35:25.5478313 v2 37595 2017-12-14 Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false 2017-12-14 STSC This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance. Journal Article Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 0905-7188 Anabolic; Androgens; Trainability; Recovery; Adaptation 31 12 2017 2017-12-31 10.1111/sms.13041 COLLEGE NANME Sport and Exercise Sciences COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2018-01-09T10:35:25.5478313 2017-12-14T14:27:22.4987660 College of Engineering Engineering Christian J Cook 1 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 2 Blair T Crewther 3 0037595-15122017085319.pdf cook2017.pdf 2017-12-15T08:53:19.7930000 Output 2320619 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true 2018-12-21T00:00:00.0000000 false eng
title Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
spellingShingle Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
Liam Kilduff
title_short Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
title_full Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
title_fullStr Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
title_full_unstemmed Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
title_sort Basal and stress-induced salivary testosterone variation across the menstrual cycle and linkage to motivation and muscle power
author_id_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
author_id_fullname_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam Kilduff
author Liam Kilduff
author2 Christian J Cook
Liam Kilduff
Blair T Crewther
format Journal article
container_title Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
publishDate 2017
institution Swansea University
issn 0905-7188
doi_str_mv 10.1111/sms.13041
college_str College of Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description This study investigated salivary testosterone (sal-T) variation across the menstrual cycle in female athletes, at different competitive levels, and its association with motivation and neuromuscular power. Six elite and 16 non-elite female athletes were monitored on days 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21) across three menstrual cycles for basal sal-T concentrations and self-appraised motivation to train and compete. Two further measures were taken on D7, D14 and D21 across two menstrual cycles; (1) the sal-T response (delta change) to a physical stress test and (2) peak power (PP) response to a 6-sec cycle sprint following a post-activation potentiation (PAP) stimulus. Basal sal-T concentrations increased by 17±27% from D7 to D14 before decreasing by -25±43% on D21 (p<0.05), but this result was biased by elite females with higher sal-T (>102%) who showed larger menstrual changes. Motivation, sal-T reactivity to stress and the PP responses to a PAP stimulus also varied by testing day (p<0.05), in parallel to basal sal-T and in favour of the elite group. Furthermore, stronger within-subject relationships (p<0.001) between basal sal-T and motivation emerged in the elites (r = 0.70-0.75) versus the non-elites (r = 0.41-0.50). In conclusion, menstrual cycle changes in sal-T were more obvious in high-performing female athletes with higher sal-T concentrations. This was accompanied by greater training motivation, a more pronounced sal-T response to a physical stressor and greater neuromuscular power in the elite group. These results support observations that female athletes with higher T are more represented at elite levels of performance.
published_date 2017-12-31T03:51:06Z
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score 10.877554