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Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen / M. Ahmadi, B. X. R. Alves, Christopher Baker, W. Bertsche, A. Capra, C. Carruth, C. L. Cesar, Michael Charlton, S. Cohen, R. Collister, Stefan Eriksson, A. Evans, N. Evetts, J. Fajans, T. Friesen, M. C. Fujiwara, D. R. Gill, J. S. Hangst, W. N. Hardy, M. E. Hayden, Aled Isaac, M. A. Johnson, J. M. Jones, S. A. Jones, S. Jonsell, A. Khramov, P. Knapp, L. Kurchaninov, Niels Madsen, D. Maxwell, J. T. K. McKenna, S. Menary, T. Momose, J. J. Munich, K. Olchanski, A. Olin, P. Pusa, C. Ø. Rasmussen, F. Robicheaux, R. L. Sacramento, M. Sameed, E. Sarid, D. M. Silveira, G. Stutter, C. So, T. D. Tharp, R. I. Thompson, Dirk van der Werf, J. S. Wurtele

Nature, Volume: 557, Issue: 7703, Pages: 71 - 75

Swansea University Authors: Christopher Baker, Michael Charlton, Stefan Eriksson, Aled Isaac, Niels Madsen, Dirk van der Werf

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Abstract

In 1928, Dirac published an equation that combined quantum mechanics and special relativity. Negative-energy solutions to this equation, rather than being unphysical as initially thought, represented a class of hitherto unobserved and unimagined particles—antimatter. The existence of particles of an...

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Published in: Nature
ISSN: 0028-0836 1476-4687
Published: 2018
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Negative-energy solutions to this equation, rather than being unphysical as initially thought, represented a class of hitherto unobserved and unimagined particles&#x2014;antimatter. The existence of particles of antimatter was confirmed with the discovery of the positron (or anti-electron) by Anderson in 1932, but it is still unknown why matter, rather than antimatter, survived after the Big Bang. As a result, experimental studies of antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge&#x2013;parity and charge&#x2013;parity&#x2013;time, and searches for evidence of primordial antimatter, such as antihelium nuclei, have high priority in contemporary physics research. The fundamental role of the hydrogen atom in the evolution of the Universe and in the historical development of our understanding of quantum physics makes its antimatter counterpart&#x2014;the antihydrogen atom&#x2014;of particular interest. Current standard-model physics requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same energy levels and spectral lines. The laser-driven 1S&#x2013;2S transition was recently observed8 in antihydrogen. Here we characterize one of the hyperfine components of this transition using magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen and compare it to model calculations for hydrogen in our apparatus. We find that the shape of the spectral line agrees very well with that expected for hydrogen and that the resonance frequency agrees with that in hydrogen to about 5 kilohertz out of 2.5&#x2009;&#xD7;&#x2009;10^15 hertz. This is consistent with charge&#x2013;parity&#x2013;time invariance at a relative precision of 2&#x2009;&#xD7;&#x2009;10^&#x2212;12&#x2014;two orders of magnitude more precise than the previous determination8&#x2014;corresponding to an absolute energy sensitivity of 2&#x2009;&#xD7;&#x2009;10^&#x2212;20 GeV.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Nature</journal><volume>557</volume><journalNumber>7703</journalNumber><paginationStart>71</paginationStart><paginationEnd>75</paginationEnd><publisher/><issnPrint>0028-0836</issnPrint><issnElectronic>1476-4687</issnElectronic><keywords>Antihydrogen, Fundamental Symmetries, CPT, Hydrogen, 1S-2S</keywords><publishedDay>3</publishedDay><publishedMonth>5</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2018</publishedYear><publishedDate>2018-05-03</publishedDate><doi>10.1038/s41586-018-0017-2</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Physics</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>SPH</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2020-08-06T13:00:12.4356192</lastEdited><Created>2018-04-05T07:28:54.4662967</Created><authors><author><firstname>M.</firstname><surname>Ahmadi</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>B. X. R.</firstname><surname>Alves</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Christopher</firstname><surname>Baker</surname><orcid>0000-0002-9448-8419</orcid><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>W.</firstname><surname>Bertsche</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Capra</surname><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>C.</firstname><surname>Carruth</surname><order>6</order></author><author><firstname>C. L.</firstname><surname>Cesar</surname><order>7</order></author><author><firstname>Michael</firstname><surname>Charlton</surname><order>8</order></author><author><firstname>S.</firstname><surname>Cohen</surname><order>9</order></author><author><firstname>R.</firstname><surname>Collister</surname><order>10</order></author><author><firstname>Stefan</firstname><surname>Eriksson</surname><order>11</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Evans</surname><order>12</order></author><author><firstname>N.</firstname><surname>Evetts</surname><order>13</order></author><author><firstname>J.</firstname><surname>Fajans</surname><order>14</order></author><author><firstname>T.</firstname><surname>Friesen</surname><order>15</order></author><author><firstname>M. C.</firstname><surname>Fujiwara</surname><order>16</order></author><author><firstname>D. R.</firstname><surname>Gill</surname><order>17</order></author><author><firstname>J. S.</firstname><surname>Hangst</surname><order>18</order></author><author><firstname>W. N.</firstname><surname>Hardy</surname><order>19</order></author><author><firstname>M. E.</firstname><surname>Hayden</surname><order>20</order></author><author><firstname>Aled</firstname><surname>Isaac</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7813-1903</orcid><order>21</order></author><author><firstname>M. A.</firstname><surname>Johnson</surname><order>22</order></author><author><firstname>J. M.</firstname><surname>Jones</surname><order>23</order></author><author><firstname>S. A.</firstname><surname>Jones</surname><order>24</order></author><author><firstname>S.</firstname><surname>Jonsell</surname><order>25</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Khramov</surname><order>26</order></author><author><firstname>P.</firstname><surname>Knapp</surname><order>27</order></author><author><firstname>L.</firstname><surname>Kurchaninov</surname><order>28</order></author><author><firstname>Niels</firstname><surname>Madsen</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7372-0784</orcid><order>29</order></author><author><firstname>D.</firstname><surname>Maxwell</surname><order>30</order></author><author><firstname>J. T. K.</firstname><surname>McKenna</surname><order>31</order></author><author><firstname>S.</firstname><surname>Menary</surname><order>32</order></author><author><firstname>T.</firstname><surname>Momose</surname><order>33</order></author><author><firstname>J. J.</firstname><surname>Munich</surname><order>34</order></author><author><firstname>K.</firstname><surname>Olchanski</surname><order>35</order></author><author><firstname>A.</firstname><surname>Olin</surname><order>36</order></author><author><firstname>P.</firstname><surname>Pusa</surname><order>37</order></author><author><firstname>C. &#xD8;.</firstname><surname>Rasmussen</surname><order>38</order></author><author><firstname>F.</firstname><surname>Robicheaux</surname><order>39</order></author><author><firstname>R. L.</firstname><surname>Sacramento</surname><order>40</order></author><author><firstname>M.</firstname><surname>Sameed</surname><order>41</order></author><author><firstname>E.</firstname><surname>Sarid</surname><order>42</order></author><author><firstname>D. 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spelling 2020-08-06T13:00:12.4356192 v2 39315 2018-04-05 Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e 0000-0002-9448-8419 Christopher Baker Christopher Baker true false d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f Michael Charlton Michael Charlton true false 785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8 Stefan Eriksson Stefan Eriksson true false 06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0 0000-0002-7813-1903 Aled Isaac Aled Isaac true false e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303 0000-0002-7372-0784 Niels Madsen Niels Madsen true false 4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a 0000-0001-5436-5214 Dirk van der Werf Dirk van der Werf true false 2018-04-05 SPH In 1928, Dirac published an equation that combined quantum mechanics and special relativity. Negative-energy solutions to this equation, rather than being unphysical as initially thought, represented a class of hitherto unobserved and unimagined particles—antimatter. The existence of particles of antimatter was confirmed with the discovery of the positron (or anti-electron) by Anderson in 1932, but it is still unknown why matter, rather than antimatter, survived after the Big Bang. As a result, experimental studies of antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge–parity and charge–parity–time, and searches for evidence of primordial antimatter, such as antihelium nuclei, have high priority in contemporary physics research. The fundamental role of the hydrogen atom in the evolution of the Universe and in the historical development of our understanding of quantum physics makes its antimatter counterpart—the antihydrogen atom—of particular interest. Current standard-model physics requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same energy levels and spectral lines. The laser-driven 1S–2S transition was recently observed8 in antihydrogen. Here we characterize one of the hyperfine components of this transition using magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen and compare it to model calculations for hydrogen in our apparatus. We find that the shape of the spectral line agrees very well with that expected for hydrogen and that the resonance frequency agrees with that in hydrogen to about 5 kilohertz out of 2.5 × 10^15 hertz. This is consistent with charge–parity–time invariance at a relative precision of 2 × 10^−12—two orders of magnitude more precise than the previous determination8—corresponding to an absolute energy sensitivity of 2 × 10^−20 GeV. Journal Article Nature 557 7703 71 75 0028-0836 1476-4687 Antihydrogen, Fundamental Symmetries, CPT, Hydrogen, 1S-2S 3 5 2018 2018-05-03 10.1038/s41586-018-0017-2 COLLEGE NANME Physics COLLEGE CODE SPH Swansea University 2020-08-06T13:00:12.4356192 2018-04-05T07:28:54.4662967 M. Ahmadi 1 B. X. R. Alves 2 Christopher Baker 0000-0002-9448-8419 3 W. Bertsche 4 A. Capra 5 C. Carruth 6 C. L. Cesar 7 Michael Charlton 8 S. Cohen 9 R. Collister 10 Stefan Eriksson 11 A. Evans 12 N. Evetts 13 J. Fajans 14 T. Friesen 15 M. C. Fujiwara 16 D. R. Gill 17 J. S. Hangst 18 W. N. Hardy 19 M. E. Hayden 20 Aled Isaac 0000-0002-7813-1903 21 M. A. Johnson 22 J. M. Jones 23 S. A. Jones 24 S. Jonsell 25 A. Khramov 26 P. Knapp 27 L. Kurchaninov 28 Niels Madsen 0000-0002-7372-0784 29 D. Maxwell 30 J. T. K. McKenna 31 S. Menary 32 T. Momose 33 J. J. Munich 34 K. Olchanski 35 A. Olin 36 P. Pusa 37 C. Ø. Rasmussen 38 F. Robicheaux 39 R. L. Sacramento 40 M. Sameed 41 E. Sarid 42 D. M. Silveira 43 G. Stutter 44 C. So 45 T. D. Tharp 46 R. I. Thompson 47 Dirk van der Werf 0000-0001-5436-5214 48 J. S. Wurtele 49 0039315-25042018111058.pdf 39315.pdf 2018-04-25T11:10:58.2500000 Output 1945898 application/pdf Version of Record true This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. true eng
title Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
spellingShingle Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
Christopher, Baker
Michael, Charlton
Stefan, Eriksson
Aled, Isaac
Niels, Madsen
Dirk, van der Werf
title_short Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
title_full Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
title_fullStr Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
title_full_unstemmed Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
title_sort Characterization of the 1S–2S transition in antihydrogen
author_id_str_mv 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e
d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8
06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303
4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a
author_id_fullname_str_mv 0c72afb63bd0c6089fc5b60bd096103e_***_Christopher, Baker
d9099cdd0f182eb9a1c8fc36ed94f53f_***_Michael, Charlton
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8_***_Stefan, Eriksson
06d7ed42719ef7bb697cf780c63e26f0_***_Aled, Isaac
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303_***_Niels, Madsen
4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a_***_Dirk, van der Werf
author Christopher, Baker
Michael, Charlton
Stefan, Eriksson
Aled, Isaac
Niels, Madsen
Dirk, van der Werf
author2 M. Ahmadi
B. X. R. Alves
Christopher Baker
W. Bertsche
A. Capra
C. Carruth
C. L. Cesar
Michael Charlton
S. Cohen
R. Collister
Stefan Eriksson
A. Evans
N. Evetts
J. Fajans
T. Friesen
M. C. Fujiwara
D. R. Gill
J. S. Hangst
W. N. Hardy
M. E. Hayden
Aled Isaac
M. A. Johnson
J. M. Jones
S. A. Jones
S. Jonsell
A. Khramov
P. Knapp
L. Kurchaninov
Niels Madsen
D. Maxwell
J. T. K. McKenna
S. Menary
T. Momose
J. J. Munich
K. Olchanski
A. Olin
P. Pusa
C. Ø. Rasmussen
F. Robicheaux
R. L. Sacramento
M. Sameed
E. Sarid
D. M. Silveira
G. Stutter
C. So
T. D. Tharp
R. I. Thompson
Dirk van der Werf
J. S. Wurtele
format Journal article
container_title Nature
container_volume 557
container_issue 7703
container_start_page 71
publishDate 2018
institution Swansea University
issn 0028-0836
1476-4687
doi_str_mv 10.1038/s41586-018-0017-2
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description In 1928, Dirac published an equation that combined quantum mechanics and special relativity. Negative-energy solutions to this equation, rather than being unphysical as initially thought, represented a class of hitherto unobserved and unimagined particles—antimatter. The existence of particles of antimatter was confirmed with the discovery of the positron (or anti-electron) by Anderson in 1932, but it is still unknown why matter, rather than antimatter, survived after the Big Bang. As a result, experimental studies of antimatter, including tests of fundamental symmetries such as charge–parity and charge–parity–time, and searches for evidence of primordial antimatter, such as antihelium nuclei, have high priority in contemporary physics research. The fundamental role of the hydrogen atom in the evolution of the Universe and in the historical development of our understanding of quantum physics makes its antimatter counterpart—the antihydrogen atom—of particular interest. Current standard-model physics requires that hydrogen and antihydrogen have the same energy levels and spectral lines. The laser-driven 1S–2S transition was recently observed8 in antihydrogen. Here we characterize one of the hyperfine components of this transition using magnetically trapped atoms of antihydrogen and compare it to model calculations for hydrogen in our apparatus. We find that the shape of the spectral line agrees very well with that expected for hydrogen and that the resonance frequency agrees with that in hydrogen to about 5 kilohertz out of 2.5 × 10^15 hertz. This is consistent with charge–parity–time invariance at a relative precision of 2 × 10^−12—two orders of magnitude more precise than the previous determination8—corresponding to an absolute energy sensitivity of 2 × 10^−20 GeV.
published_date 2018-05-03T03:59:23Z
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