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The removal of ammonia-nitrogen and degradation of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol and mestranol using partial fixed bed continuous reactor (PFBR) and moving bed continuous reactor (MBBR). /

Swansea University Author: Kasmuri, Norhafezah

Abstract

Effective treatment of wastewater is an important process in reducing the environmental impact of industry and human activity. Although conventional water treatment systems can adequately remove the principle components of waste (i.e. substances that can be represented the majority of biological and...

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Published: 2014
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: Ph.D
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa42223
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Abstract: Effective treatment of wastewater is an important process in reducing the environmental impact of industry and human activity. Although conventional water treatment systems can adequately remove the principle components of waste (i.e. substances that can be represented the majority of biological and chemical oxygen demand) several materials are poorly or slowly removed. Tertiary treatment polishing processes are therefore required to remove these contaminants to ensure complete wastewater treatment. This thesis reports investigations made using film reactors that are used to remove recalcitrant materials such as ammonia- nitrogen and endocrine disrupters that although present in low concentrations, if left untreated can have a strong impact on the environment. Film reactors potentially offer several process advantages over conventional activated sludge treatments systems as they allow very long residence time and contact with high concentrations of fixed microbes with the low concentrations of pollutants so enhancing kinetic performance and efficiency of the process. Two reactor configurations, a partial fixed bed (PFBR) and moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) were investigated. A thirty liter reactor with a working volume of 16 liters was constructed and contained fixed microbial films on either free suspended or fixed beds plastic packing (K2 AnoxKaldnes). The investigation of ammonia-nitrogen oxidation showed that after a suitable acclimation period (2 weeks) that ammonia was oxidise rapidly reducing the feed concentrations of 35 mg/L to < 2 mg/L in the effluent. To assess the performance for ammonia-nitrogen removal the reactors operated for long periods (up to 3 months) with continuous feed using the reactor in either PFBR or MBBR modes in addition of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2), the endocrine disrupting compounds commonly found in municipal wastewater. These substances is derived from a synthetic hormones if found in the natural environment can reduced the productivity of the fish as this can cause feminization in aquatic organisms with disastrous consequences on fish populations. The MBBR and PFBR systems were used to investigate the co-metabolism of ammonia-nitrogen, 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol from model waste water feed containing 35 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen and 100 mug/L of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2). A kinetic analysis of the systems were made and for the PFBR reactor, the specific growth rate, mumax of 7.092 d-1 with saturation constants, Ks of 1.574 mg/L. The kinetic analysis for the MBBR system was 6.329 d-1 for the mumax with the K.S of 0.652 mg/L. When the PFBR was used removal of EE2 represents 70% MeEE2 was removed. MBBR were shown to be more effective and efficient in removing ammonia-nitrogen reducing the levels under good conditions to > 2 mg/L while the PFBR could also achieve 2 mg/L. The MBBR system was also more competent in the removal of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol compared to PFBR. This work demonstrates that there are considerable advantages to using thin film reactors as polishing step for the tertiary treatment of waste waters when to compared to other processes in reducing the inorganic pollutants as endocrine disrupting compounds. The significance of these results is discussed in this context.
Keywords: Chemical engineering.;Environmental engineering.
College: College of Engineering