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Foreign direct investments and economic growth in Namibia. / Veundjua Muruko
Swansea University Author: Veundjua, Muruko
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In capital-scarce low income economies, FDI is seen as a stable and important source of financing for developing economies. FDI is therefore expected to generate effects on the country's economic growth potential. However, despite the long history of FDI, it was only after 1990 that Sub-Saharan...
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In capital-scarce low income economies, FDI is seen as a stable and important source of financing for developing economies. FDI is therefore expected to generate effects on the country's economic growth potential. However, despite the long history of FDI, it was only after 1990 that Sub-Saharan African countries experienced vast increase in FDI inflows into the region. Evidence of effectiveness of such flows has remained debateable, particularly with the dominance of cross-country studies in such enquiry. With yet no existing country study for Namibia, this research investigates the relationship between FDI and economic growth in the country and the determinants of FDI flows to Namibia. The methodologies adopted in this study are mainly based on co-integration analysis. In order to investigate the impact of FDI on economic growth we employ co-integration tests and estimate both long-run effects and short-run dynamics using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The study also extends co-integration testing by applying the asymmetric (ARDL) model to test for asymmetry. The standard co-integration tests are also appropriately used to investigate the macroeconomic determinants of FDI flows to Namibia. Appropriate econometric procedure has also been employed to examine the sector level FDI and economic growth using a dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS) model and mean-group (MG) estimation, to consider for the assumptions of both a homogeneity and heterogeneity case across units. Arising from a pluralistic analytical framework involving a triangulation of econometric estimation approaches, the study finds that FDI in Namibia is significant in promoting economic growth in the country. In terms of the impact on growth, the results show a positive relationship between FDI and economic growth. They also indicate that FDI consistently exerts a positive impact on growth when we incorporate trade openness, inflation and gross fixed capital formation in the analysis. This proves that these variables are indeed important in explaining economic growth in the long-run in the country and its development. With respect to the analysis, the study extended upon the linear framework to allow for the detection of asymmetric effects both in the short and long-run, as not to limit the study to the assumption of a linear paradigm only. The results show no evidence of asymmetric pattern in the relationship between FDI and economic growth. Meaning, the responsiveness of economic growth to FDI flow variations is linear. In terms of the macroeconomic determinant of FDI in Namibia the study finds that the potential market size, interest rates, initial level of income, labour force, the provision of infrastructural facilities and inflation are important determinants of FDI into the country. Although openness is found to be positive it is insignificant in determining FDI to Namibia. This could possibly act as a deterrent and as such the institutional set up's for the export and investment promotion services need a criterion for a successful export and investment support function in order to increase FDI inflows into the country and remove such factors that could inhibit such flows. In terms of sector specific FDI and economic growth the results show a co-integrating relationship. Therefore, there is long run relationship in conformity with the study hypothesis. Accounting for causality the study finds feedback effects between FDI and economic growth both in the short and long-run. Furthermore, the study also finds that FDI to Namibia is not only resource seeking but that Namibia has seen an increase in market-seeking and efficiency seeking foreign investors. As such, differentiated efforts towards attracting different forms of FDI flows to varied sectors are crucial if the economic significance of FDI is to be improved in Namibia.
Economics.;Sub Saharan Africa studies.
School of Management