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Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer. / Robin Ghosal

Swansea University Author: Robin Ghosal

Abstract

SummaryLung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed each year. The 5-year survival rate is much lower than other common cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. Several large-scale screening programmes using existing technologies over the past 40 years have...

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Published: 2010
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: Ph.D
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa43007
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first_indexed 2018-08-02T18:56:04Z
last_indexed 2019-10-21T16:48:51Z
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spelling 2018-08-29T14:39:02.5536440 v2 43007 2018-08-02 Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer. a02329d45f7e04474892614317410309 NULL Robin Ghosal Robin Ghosal true true 2018-08-02 SummaryLung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed each year. The 5-year survival rate is much lower than other common cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. Several large-scale screening programmes using existing technologies over the past 40 years have not yet reduced mortality rates from lung cancer. We have studied new technologies on sputum and exhaled breath to assess their potential for diagnosis. Reliable, non-invasive and cheap diagnostic tests are the cornerstone for any future screening programme. The first study tests the sputa of patients with suspected lung cancer and healthy controls with Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. We developed a predictive model based on two wavenumbers, to differentiate those with proven lung cancer versus healthy controls with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 91%. When we included the sputa of patients having tests for lung cancer initially but with no evidence of cancer after one year (“high-risk” group), this only partially reduced the model’s predictive ability. The second study assessed the sputa from the same cohorts with a panel of gene antibodies (p16, p53, p63, EGFR and cyclin D1). Results were not discriminatory with low sensitivity (8-42%), suggesting immunohistochemistry on sputa cells will not be a useful diagnostic tool. Our final study assessed exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in \the breath of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and in healthy controlsj using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. 29 cancer-exclusive VOCswere identified and 25 further VOCs were universally higher in the cancer cohort, allowing correct classification of 89% of cancer patients. We conclude that two of the three novel techniques (sputum FTIR and exhaled VOCs) could successfully distinguish cancer from healthy control subjects and show potential as screening modalities in further larger scale studies. E-Thesis Lung cancer 31 12 2010 2010-12-31 COLLEGE NANME Swansea University Medical School COLLEGE CODE Swansea University Doctoral Ph.D 2018-08-29T14:39:02.5536440 2018-08-02T16:24:31.0538053 Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences Swansea University Medical School - Medicine Robin Ghosal NULL 1 0043007-02082018162539.pdf 10821397.pdf 2018-08-02T16:25:39.3500000 Output 9937953 application/pdf E-Thesis true 2018-08-02T16:25:39.3500000 false
title Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
spellingShingle Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
Robin Ghosal
title_short Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
title_full Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
title_fullStr Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
title_full_unstemmed Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
title_sort Biological tools in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
author_id_str_mv a02329d45f7e04474892614317410309
author_id_fullname_str_mv a02329d45f7e04474892614317410309_***_Robin Ghosal
author Robin Ghosal
author2 Robin Ghosal
format E-Thesis
publishDate 2010
institution Swansea University
college_str Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
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hierarchy_top_id facultyofmedicinehealthandlifesciences
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofmedicinehealthandlifesciences
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
department_str Swansea University Medical School - Medicine{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Swansea University Medical School - Medicine
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description SummaryLung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide with 1.3 million new cases diagnosed each year. The 5-year survival rate is much lower than other common cancers such as breast and prostate cancer. Several large-scale screening programmes using existing technologies over the past 40 years have not yet reduced mortality rates from lung cancer. We have studied new technologies on sputum and exhaled breath to assess their potential for diagnosis. Reliable, non-invasive and cheap diagnostic tests are the cornerstone for any future screening programme. The first study tests the sputa of patients with suspected lung cancer and healthy controls with Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy. We developed a predictive model based on two wavenumbers, to differentiate those with proven lung cancer versus healthy controls with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 91%. When we included the sputa of patients having tests for lung cancer initially but with no evidence of cancer after one year (“high-risk” group), this only partially reduced the model’s predictive ability. The second study assessed the sputa from the same cohorts with a panel of gene antibodies (p16, p53, p63, EGFR and cyclin D1). Results were not discriminatory with low sensitivity (8-42%), suggesting immunohistochemistry on sputa cells will not be a useful diagnostic tool. Our final study assessed exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in \the breath of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients and in healthy controlsj using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. 29 cancer-exclusive VOCswere identified and 25 further VOCs were universally higher in the cancer cohort, allowing correct classification of 89% of cancer patients. We conclude that two of the three novel techniques (sputum FTIR and exhaled VOCs) could successfully distinguish cancer from healthy control subjects and show potential as screening modalities in further larger scale studies.
published_date 2010-12-31T03:51:17Z
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score 10.926129