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Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy / Mark Blagrove; Sioned Hale; Julia Lockheart; Michelle Carr; Alex Jones; Katja Valli

Frontiers in Psychology, Volume: 10

Swansea University Author: Blagrove, Mark

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Abstract

In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with amixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions.We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer andon significant others who hear and engage with the tel...

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Published in: Frontiers in Psychology
ISSN: 1664-1078
Published: 2019
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2019-08-01T12:44:54Z</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>50563</id><entry>2019-05-29</entry><title>Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy</title><alternativeTitle></alternativeTitle><author>Mark Blagrove</author><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Blagrove</surname><active>true</active><ORCID>0000-0002-9854-1854</ORCID><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent><sid>8c78ee008e650b9f0a463bae56a5636c</sid><email>56f1c8c8ef24668a27a5e2cb8a684fce</email><emailaddr>WFEyPpvG0vhdqbL5iN33pH2HZhUyFASdV1DFdgIIhKs=</emailaddr><date>2019-05-29</date><deptcode>HPS</deptcode><abstract>In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with amixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions.We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer andon significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 teststhree correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy:that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, withfrequency of listening to others&#x2019; dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD)(for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed onlinethe Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearsonpartial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathywas found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreamsof others, frequency of telling one&#x2019;s own dreams to others, and attitude towarddreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using anadapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharersand discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dreamappreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharerwas found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a mediumeffect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward thediscusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken fromthe robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induceempathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction thatcan be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induceempathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation thatthe story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for inhuman evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotionalintelligence, empathy, and social bonding.</abstract><type>Journal article</type><journal>Frontiers in Psychology</journal><volume>10</volume><journalNumber/><paginationStart/><paginationEnd/><publisher></publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint/><issnElectronic>1664-1078</issnElectronic><keywords>dreaming, empathy, social simulation, dream sharing, human bonding, human evolution and behavior, human consciousness, consciousness</keywords><publishedDay>0</publishedDay><publishedMonth>6</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2019</publishedYear><publishedDate>2019-06-01</publishedDate><doi>10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01351</doi><url></url><notes></notes><college>College of Human and Health Sciences</college><department>Psychology</department><CollegeCode>CHHS</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>HPS</DepartmentCode><institution/><researchGroup>Clinical and Health Psychology&#xA0;</researchGroup><supervisor/><sponsorsfunders/><grantnumber/><degreelevel/><degreename>None</degreename><lastEdited>2019-08-01T12:44:54Z</lastEdited><Created>2019-05-29T15:52:36Z</Created><path><level id="1">College of Human and Health Sciences</level><level id="2">Psychology</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Blagrove</surname><orcid/><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Sioned</firstname><surname>Hale</surname><orcid/><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Julia</firstname><surname>Lockheart</surname><orcid/><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Michelle</firstname><surname>Carr</surname><orcid/><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Alex</firstname><surname>Jones</surname><orcid/><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Katja</firstname><surname>Valli</surname><orcid/><order>6</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>0050563-24062019105013.pdf</filename><originalFilename>50563.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2019-06-24T10:50:13Z</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>331107</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>VoR</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><action>Published to Cronfa</action><actionDate>24/06/2019</actionDate><embargoDate>2019-06-23T00:00:00</embargoDate><documentNotes>Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language></document></documents></rfc1807>
spelling 2019-08-01T12:44:54Z v2 50563 2019-05-29 Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy Mark Blagrove Mark Blagrove true 0000-0002-9854-1854 false 8c78ee008e650b9f0a463bae56a5636c 56f1c8c8ef24668a27a5e2cb8a684fce WFEyPpvG0vhdqbL5iN33pH2HZhUyFASdV1DFdgIIhKs= 2019-05-29 HPS In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with amixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions.We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer andon significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 teststhree correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy:that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, withfrequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD)(for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed onlinethe Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearsonpartial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathywas found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreamsof others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude towarddreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using anadapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharersand discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dreamappreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharerwas found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a mediumeffect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward thediscusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken fromthe robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induceempathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction thatcan be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induceempathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation thatthe story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for inhuman evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotionalintelligence, empathy, and social bonding. Journal article Frontiers in Psychology 10 1664-1078 dreaming, empathy, social simulation, dream sharing, human bonding, human evolution and behavior, human consciousness, consciousness 0 6 2019 2019-06-01 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01351 College of Human and Health Sciences Psychology CHHS HPS Clinical and Health Psychology  None 2019-08-01T12:44:54Z 2019-05-29T15:52:36Z College of Human and Health Sciences Psychology Mark Blagrove 1 Sioned Hale 2 Julia Lockheart 3 Michelle Carr 4 Alex Jones 5 Katja Valli 6 0050563-24062019105013.pdf 50563.pdf 2019-06-24T10:50:13Z Output 331107 application/pdf VoR true Published to Cronfa 24/06/2019 2019-06-23T00:00:00 Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). true eng
title Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
spellingShingle Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
Blagrove, Mark
title_short Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
title_full Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
title_fullStr Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
title_full_unstemmed Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
title_sort Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy
author_id_str_mv 8c78ee008e650b9f0a463bae56a5636c
author_id_fullname_str_mv 8c78ee008e650b9f0a463bae56a5636c_***_Blagrove, Mark
author Blagrove, Mark
author2 Mark Blagrove
Sioned Hale
Julia Lockheart
Michelle Carr
Alex Jones
Katja Valli
format Journal article
container_title Frontiers in Psychology
container_volume 10
publishDate 2019
institution Swansea University
issn 1664-1078
doi_str_mv 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01351
college_str College of Human and Health Sciences
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofhumanandhealthsciences
hierarchy_top_title College of Human and Health Sciences
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofhumanandhealthsciences
hierarchy_parent_title College of Human and Health Sciences
department_str Psychology{{{_:::_}}}College of Human and Health Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Psychology
document_store_str 1
active_str 1
researchgroup_str Clinical and Health Psychology 
description In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with amixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions.We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer andon significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 teststhree correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy:that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, withfrequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD)(for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed onlinethe Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearsonpartial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathywas found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreamsof others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude towarddreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using anadapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharersand discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dreamappreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharerwas found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a mediumeffect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward thediscusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken fromthe robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induceempathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction thatcan be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induceempathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation thatthe story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for inhuman evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotionalintelligence, empathy, and social bonding.
published_date 2019-06-01T22:25:49Z
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