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Multivariate analysis of biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials for detection of heavy metal ions in aqueous systems
Science of The Total Environment, Volume: 688, Pages: 751 - 761
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This article focuses on implementing multivariate analysis to evaluate biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials(BCN) from three different feedstocks for the detection and differentiation of heavy metal ions inaqueous systems. The BCN were produced from dairy manure, rice straw and sorghum straw bi...
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This article focuses on implementing multivariate analysis to evaluate biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials(BCN) from three different feedstocks for the detection and differentiation of heavy metal ions inaqueous systems. The BCN were produced from dairy manure, rice straw and sorghum straw biochar usingour NanoRefinery process. The NanoRefinery process transforms biochar into advanced nanomaterials usingdepolymerisation/chemical oxidation and purification of nanomaterials using solvent extraction. Dairy manurebiochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (DMB-CN), rice straw biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials(RSB-CN) and sorghum straw biochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials (SSB-CN) were utilisedas probes for the evaluation of their fluorescent properties and the detection of heavy metal ions. The BCNfluorescence quenching and fluorescence recovery was tested with lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+), copper (Cu2+)and mercury (Hg2+). Principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis were used to differentiateamong heavy metal ions in water samples. The BCN from different feedstocks had different characteristicsand produced different interactions with heavy metal ions. DMB-CN had the highest quenching for Hg2+ andNi2+ while SSB-CN and RSB-CN responded best to Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The fluorescence quenchingwas modelled using linear and empirical functions. PCA and discriminant analysis used the quenching measurementsto differentiate heavy metal ions in aqueous system. A key result was that the discriminant analysishad a 100% accuracy to detect Pb2+, 66% for Ni2+ and Cu2+, and 33% for Hg2+. This study has shown thatbiochar-derived carbonaceous nanomaterials could be used in heavy metal ions sensing applications. This isthe first step in the development of a fast and accurate method for the detection of heavy metal ions in watersusing environmentally friendly BCN.
Biochar Carbonaceous nanomaterials Heavy metal ions Fluorescence sensors Quenching Multivariate analysis
Swansea University Medical School