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The neuroscience of sadness: A multidisciplinary synthesis and collaborative review / Claire, Williams; Rashmi, Raghvani; Andrew, Kemp

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, Volume: 111, Pages: 199 - 228

Swansea University Authors: Claire, Williams, Rashmi, Raghvani, Andrew, Kemp

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Abstract

Sadness is typically characterized by raised inner eyebrows, lowered corners of the mouth, reduced walking speed, and slumped posture. Ancient subcortical circuitry provides a neuroanatomical foundation, extending from dorsal periaqueductal grey to subgenual anterior cingulate, the latter of which i...

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Published in: Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews
ISSN: 0149-7634
Published: Elsevier BV 2020
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa53116
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Abstract: Sadness is typically characterized by raised inner eyebrows, lowered corners of the mouth, reduced walking speed, and slumped posture. Ancient subcortical circuitry provides a neuroanatomical foundation, extending from dorsal periaqueductal grey to subgenual anterior cingulate, the latter of which is now a treatment target in disorders of sadness. Electrophysiological studies further emphasize a role for reduced left relative to right frontal asymmetry in sadness, underpinning interest in the transcranial stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an antidepressant target. Neuroimaging studies – including meta-analyses – indicate that sadness is associated with reduced cortical activation, which may contribute to reduced parasympathetic inhibitory control over medullary cardioacceleratory circuits. Reduced cardiac control may – in part – contribute to epidemiological reports of reduced life expectancy in affective disorders, effects equivalent to heavy smoking. We suggest that the field may be moving toward a theoretical consensus, in which different models relating to basic emotion theory and psychological constructionism may be considered as complementary, working at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy.
Keywords: Sadness, Major Depressive Disorder, Basic Emotions, Psychological Constructionism, Genetics, Psychophysiology, Neuroimaging, Affective Neuroscience, Heart Rate Variability, GENIAL model, Health and wellbeing, Vagal function
Start Page: 199
End Page: 228