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Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling

Zisheng Liao, Mokarram Hossain Orcid Logo, Xiaohu Yao

Mechanics of Materials, Volume: 144, Start page: 103366

Swansea University Author: Mokarram Hossain Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Ecoflex, a commercially available silicone polymer, has attracted considerable attention due to its wide range of applications. The polymer has various Shore hardnesses that represent its wide range of stiffnesses. In this contribution, we have conducted a plethora of experiments under the uniaxial...

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Published in: Mechanics of Materials
ISSN: 0167-6636
Published: Elsevier BV 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa53571
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spelling 2020-02-18T12:44:09.8732666 v2 53571 2020-02-18 Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling 140f4aa5c5ec18ec173c8542a7fddafd 0000-0002-4616-1104 Mokarram Hossain Mokarram Hossain true false 2020-02-18 GENG Ecoflex, a commercially available silicone polymer, has attracted considerable attention due to its wide range of applications. The polymer has various Shore hardnesses that represent its wide range of stiffnesses. In this contribution, we have conducted a plethora of experiments under the uniaxial mode of tensile deformation. These experiments consist of loading-unloading cyclic tests, stretchability tests, single-step relaxation tests, Mullins effect tests, stress recovery tests, and temperature-dependence tests at different strain levels. All tests are revisited with Ecoflex of five Shore hardnesses ranging from Shore 00-10 to Shore 00-50. Extensive experimental findings illustrate that the material consists of an equilibrium stress part and an overstress part. Constitutive frameworks with an amplified strain invariant are proposed to predict the mechanical responses of Ecoflex over a wide range of Shore hardnesses. Afterwards, the frameworks are extended to capture the stress softening behaviour significantly observed in the material. Relevant examples illustrate that proposed constitutive models accurately predict stress-strain responses and the stress softening behaviour of Ecoflex. The current experimental study will work as a guide in selecting Ecoflex with an appropriate Shore hardness for applications in stretch sensors, soft robotics, and energy harvesters. Moreover, the novel concept of Shore-dependent modelling proposed herein can be applied to predict the stress-strain behaviour of other soft polymers appearing with various Shore hardnesses where there exist difficulties in obtaining experimental data of a particular Shore hardness. Journal Article Mechanics of Materials 144 103366 Elsevier BV 0167-6636 Ecoflex silicone rubber, Stress softening, Shore hardness, Constitutive model, Strain invariant amplification 1 5 2020 2020-05-01 10.1016/j.mechmat.2020.103366 COLLEGE NANME General Engineering COLLEGE CODE GENG Swansea University 2020-02-18T12:44:09.8732666 2020-02-18T12:44:09.8732666 Zisheng Liao 1 Mokarram Hossain 0000-0002-4616-1104 2 Xiaohu Yao 3 53571__16605__422179df9f054515b125f014dee4bd1b.pdf 53571.pdf 2020-02-18T13:57:11.3753149 Output 1622648 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true 2021-02-16T00:00:00.0000000 Distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License (CC-BY-NC-ND) 4.0 International true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/legalcode
title Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
spellingShingle Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
Mokarram Hossain
title_short Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
title_full Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
title_fullStr Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
title_full_unstemmed Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
title_sort Ecoflex polymer of different Shore hardnesses: Experimental investigations and constitutive modelling
author_id_str_mv 140f4aa5c5ec18ec173c8542a7fddafd
author_id_fullname_str_mv 140f4aa5c5ec18ec173c8542a7fddafd_***_Mokarram Hossain
author Mokarram Hossain
author2 Zisheng Liao
Mokarram Hossain
Xiaohu Yao
format Journal article
container_title Mechanics of Materials
container_volume 144
container_start_page 103366
publishDate 2020
institution Swansea University
issn 0167-6636
doi_str_mv 10.1016/j.mechmat.2020.103366
publisher Elsevier BV
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description Ecoflex, a commercially available silicone polymer, has attracted considerable attention due to its wide range of applications. The polymer has various Shore hardnesses that represent its wide range of stiffnesses. In this contribution, we have conducted a plethora of experiments under the uniaxial mode of tensile deformation. These experiments consist of loading-unloading cyclic tests, stretchability tests, single-step relaxation tests, Mullins effect tests, stress recovery tests, and temperature-dependence tests at different strain levels. All tests are revisited with Ecoflex of five Shore hardnesses ranging from Shore 00-10 to Shore 00-50. Extensive experimental findings illustrate that the material consists of an equilibrium stress part and an overstress part. Constitutive frameworks with an amplified strain invariant are proposed to predict the mechanical responses of Ecoflex over a wide range of Shore hardnesses. Afterwards, the frameworks are extended to capture the stress softening behaviour significantly observed in the material. Relevant examples illustrate that proposed constitutive models accurately predict stress-strain responses and the stress softening behaviour of Ecoflex. The current experimental study will work as a guide in selecting Ecoflex with an appropriate Shore hardness for applications in stretch sensors, soft robotics, and energy harvesters. Moreover, the novel concept of Shore-dependent modelling proposed herein can be applied to predict the stress-strain behaviour of other soft polymers appearing with various Shore hardnesses where there exist difficulties in obtaining experimental data of a particular Shore hardness.
published_date 2020-05-01T04:07:52Z
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score 10.898149