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Recent advances in understanding the role of glucagon-like peptide 1
F1000Research, Volume: 9, Start page: 239
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The discovery that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mediates a significant proportion of the incretin effect during the postprandial period and the subsequent observation that GLP-1 bioactivity is retained in type 2 diabetes (T2D) led to new therapeutic strategies being developed for T2D treatment ba...
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The discovery that glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) mediates a significant proportion of the incretin effect during the postprandial period and the subsequent observation that GLP-1 bioactivity is retained in type 2 diabetes (T2D) led to new therapeutic strategies being developed for T2D treatment based on GLP-1 action. Although owing to its short half-life exogenous GLP-1 has no use therapeutically, GLP-1 mimetics, which have a much longer half-life than native GLP-1, have proven to be effective for T2D treatment since they prolong the incretin effect in patients. These GLP-1 mimetics are a desirable therapeutic option for T2D since they do not provoke hypoglycaemia or weight gain and have simple modes of administration and monitoring. Additionally, over more recent years, GLP-1 action has been found to mediate systemic physiological beneficial effects and this has high clinical relevance due to the post-diagnosis complications of T2D. Indeed, recent studies have found that certain GLP-1 analogue therapies improve the cardiovascular outcomes for people with diabetes. Furthermore, GLP-1-based therapies may enable new therapeutic strategies for diseases that can also arise independently of the clinical manifestation of T2D, such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. GLP-1 functions by binding to its receptor (GLP-1R), which expresses mainly in pancreatic islet beta cells. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signalling pathways by which acute and chronic GLP-1R activation alleviates disease phenotypes and induces desirable physiological responses during healthy conditions will likely lead to the development of new therapeutic GLP-1 mimetic-based therapies, which improve prognosis to a greater extent than current therapies for an array of diseases.
GLP-1, Type 2 diabetes, incretin, GLP-1R
Swansea University Medical School