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Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes

Rhys Charles, Peter Douglas Orcid Logo, Mark Dowling, Gareth Liversage, Matthew Davies Orcid Logo

Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume: 161, Start page: 104923

Swansea University Authors: Rhys Charles, Peter Douglas Orcid Logo, Matthew Davies Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Increasing recovery of critical raw materials (CRMs) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a strategic priority to mitigate supply risks. Today, CRM recovery rates are generally low, with increases requiring new recovery processes and interface optimisation with pre-processing to...

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Published in: Resources, Conservation and Recycling
ISSN: 0921-3449
Published: Elsevier BV 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa54211
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Today, CRM recovery rates are generally low, with increases requiring new recovery processes and interface optimisation with pre-processing to ensure appropriate material flows for efficient recovery are generated. Here, results from an industrial trial to increase CRM recovery from WEEE are presented to inform development of pre-processing strategies which generate such material flows. Au, Ag, Co, Ga, Mg, Nb, Ru, Pd, Ir, Y, Nd, Sb, Ta and W are identified with XRF in components of a range of WEEE samples including within individual printed circuit board (PCB) components. CRM distribution in PCBs is mapped by visual inspection with reference to this data. Cost-effective methods to disassemble WEEE; isolate CRM bearing components, and upgrade/concentrate CRMs are evaluated for industrial adoption. A guillotine is found most suitable for LCD disassembly and separation of Au edge-contacts from PCBs, while cryocracking is best for isolation of internal components of digital media devices. Thermal PCB disassembly with a solder bath for simultaneous SMD removal and subsequent sieving to sort SMDs thereby concentrating CRMs for recovery is a promising approach. Microwave ashing of PCBs to concentrate CRMs is promising although off-gas treatment would be required. Recovery potential of identified CRMs from material streams generated is found to be poor due to lack of suitable recovery infrastructure except for precious and platinum group metals in PCBs, but available pyrometallurgical recovery permanently dissipates other CRMs present.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Resources, Conservation and Recycling</journal><volume>161</volume><journalNumber/><paginationStart>104923</paginationStart><paginationEnd/><publisher>Elsevier BV</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>0921-3449</issnPrint><issnElectronic/><keywords>Critical raw materials (CRMs), Analysis, WEEE, e-waste, Recycling, Circular economy</keywords><publishedDay>1</publishedDay><publishedMonth>10</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2020</publishedYear><publishedDate>2020-10-01</publishedDate><doi>10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104923</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Chemical Engineering</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>CHEG</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><funders>UKRI, EP/S001336/1</funders><lastEdited>2021-12-01T14:00:48.6550204</lastEdited><Created>2020-05-14T10:47:47.9232416</Created><path><level id="1">Professional Services</level><level id="2">ISS - Uncategorised</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Rhys</firstname><surname>Charles</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Peter</firstname><surname>Douglas</surname><orcid>0000-0002-7760-3614</orcid><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Dowling</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Gareth</firstname><surname>Liversage</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Matthew</firstname><surname>Davies</surname><orcid>0000-0003-2595-5121</orcid><order>5</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>54211__17624__526d633436174b40ae041be758686a35.pdf</filename><originalFilename>54211.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2020-07-02T10:30:49.1225618</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>13720242</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><documentNotes>Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY).</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language><licence>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/</licence></document></documents><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2021-12-01T14:00:48.6550204 v2 54211 2020-05-14 Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes 4930f151f5b625add0a0aae767a4b1a8 Rhys Charles Rhys Charles true false e8784a005f86bc615bc6d04e87fbbacd 0000-0002-7760-3614 Peter Douglas Peter Douglas true false 4ad478e342120ca3434657eb13527636 0000-0003-2595-5121 Matthew Davies Matthew Davies true false 2020-05-14 CHEG Increasing recovery of critical raw materials (CRMs) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a strategic priority to mitigate supply risks. Today, CRM recovery rates are generally low, with increases requiring new recovery processes and interface optimisation with pre-processing to ensure appropriate material flows for efficient recovery are generated. Here, results from an industrial trial to increase CRM recovery from WEEE are presented to inform development of pre-processing strategies which generate such material flows. Au, Ag, Co, Ga, Mg, Nb, Ru, Pd, Ir, Y, Nd, Sb, Ta and W are identified with XRF in components of a range of WEEE samples including within individual printed circuit board (PCB) components. CRM distribution in PCBs is mapped by visual inspection with reference to this data. Cost-effective methods to disassemble WEEE; isolate CRM bearing components, and upgrade/concentrate CRMs are evaluated for industrial adoption. A guillotine is found most suitable for LCD disassembly and separation of Au edge-contacts from PCBs, while cryocracking is best for isolation of internal components of digital media devices. Thermal PCB disassembly with a solder bath for simultaneous SMD removal and subsequent sieving to sort SMDs thereby concentrating CRMs for recovery is a promising approach. Microwave ashing of PCBs to concentrate CRMs is promising although off-gas treatment would be required. Recovery potential of identified CRMs from material streams generated is found to be poor due to lack of suitable recovery infrastructure except for precious and platinum group metals in PCBs, but available pyrometallurgical recovery permanently dissipates other CRMs present. Journal Article Resources, Conservation and Recycling 161 104923 Elsevier BV 0921-3449 Critical raw materials (CRMs), Analysis, WEEE, e-waste, Recycling, Circular economy 1 10 2020 2020-10-01 10.1016/j.resconrec.2020.104923 COLLEGE NANME Chemical Engineering COLLEGE CODE CHEG Swansea University UKRI, EP/S001336/1 2021-12-01T14:00:48.6550204 2020-05-14T10:47:47.9232416 Professional Services ISS - Uncategorised Rhys Charles 1 Peter Douglas 0000-0002-7760-3614 2 Mark Dowling 3 Gareth Liversage 4 Matthew Davies 0000-0003-2595-5121 5 54211__17624__526d633436174b40ae041be758686a35.pdf 54211.pdf 2020-07-02T10:30:49.1225618 Output 13720242 application/pdf Version of Record true Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY). true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY/4.0/
title Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
spellingShingle Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
Rhys Charles
Peter Douglas
Matthew Davies
title_short Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
title_full Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
title_fullStr Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
title_full_unstemmed Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
title_sort Towards Increased Recovery of Critical Raw Materials from WEEE– evaluation of CRMs at a component level and pre-processing methods for interface optimisation with recovery processes
author_id_str_mv 4930f151f5b625add0a0aae767a4b1a8
e8784a005f86bc615bc6d04e87fbbacd
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author_id_fullname_str_mv 4930f151f5b625add0a0aae767a4b1a8_***_Rhys Charles
e8784a005f86bc615bc6d04e87fbbacd_***_Peter Douglas
4ad478e342120ca3434657eb13527636_***_Matthew Davies
author Rhys Charles
Peter Douglas
Matthew Davies
author2 Rhys Charles
Peter Douglas
Mark Dowling
Gareth Liversage
Matthew Davies
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description Increasing recovery of critical raw materials (CRMs) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a strategic priority to mitigate supply risks. Today, CRM recovery rates are generally low, with increases requiring new recovery processes and interface optimisation with pre-processing to ensure appropriate material flows for efficient recovery are generated. Here, results from an industrial trial to increase CRM recovery from WEEE are presented to inform development of pre-processing strategies which generate such material flows. Au, Ag, Co, Ga, Mg, Nb, Ru, Pd, Ir, Y, Nd, Sb, Ta and W are identified with XRF in components of a range of WEEE samples including within individual printed circuit board (PCB) components. CRM distribution in PCBs is mapped by visual inspection with reference to this data. Cost-effective methods to disassemble WEEE; isolate CRM bearing components, and upgrade/concentrate CRMs are evaluated for industrial adoption. A guillotine is found most suitable for LCD disassembly and separation of Au edge-contacts from PCBs, while cryocracking is best for isolation of internal components of digital media devices. Thermal PCB disassembly with a solder bath for simultaneous SMD removal and subsequent sieving to sort SMDs thereby concentrating CRMs for recovery is a promising approach. Microwave ashing of PCBs to concentrate CRMs is promising although off-gas treatment would be required. Recovery potential of identified CRMs from material streams generated is found to be poor due to lack of suitable recovery infrastructure except for precious and platinum group metals in PCBs, but available pyrometallurgical recovery permanently dissipates other CRMs present.
published_date 2020-10-01T04:00:38Z
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