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Integration of the Process Algebra CSP in Dependent Type Theory - Formalisation and Verification / BASHAR, ALKHAWALDEH
Swansea University Author: BASHAR, ALKHAWALDEH
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DOI (Published version): 10.23889/Suthesis.54270
We introduce a library called CSP-Agda for representing processes in the dependently typed theorem prover and interactive programming language Agda. We will enhance processes by a monad structure. The monad struc-ture facilitates combining processes in a modular way, and allows to define recursion a...
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We introduce a library called CSP-Agda for representing processes in the dependently typed theorem prover and interactive programming language Agda. We will enhance processes by a monad structure. The monad struc-ture facilitates combining processes in a modular way, and allows to define recursion as a direct operation on processes. Processes are defined coinduc-tively as non-well-founded trees. The nodes of the tree are formed by a an atomic one step relation, which determines for a process the external, internal choices, and termination events it can choose, and whether the process has terminated. The data type of processes is inspired by Setzer and Hancock’s notion of interactive programs in dependent type theory. The operators of CSP will be defined rather than atomic operations, and compute new ele-ments of the data type of processes from existing ones.The approach will make use of advanced type theoretic features: the use of inductive-recursively defined universes; the definition of coinductive types by their observations, which has similarities to the notion of an object in object-oriented programming; the use of sized types for coinductive types, which allow coinductive definitions in a modular way; the handling of fini-tary information (names of processes) in a coinductive settings; the use of named types for automatic inference of arguments similar to its use in tem-plate Meta-programming in C++; and the use of interactive programs in dependent type theory.We introduce a simulator as an interactive program in Agda. The simula-tor allows to observe the evolving of processes following external or internal choices. Our aim is to use this in order to simulate railway interlocking system and write programs in Agda which directly use CSP processes.Then we extend the trace semantics of CSP to the monadic setting. We implement this semantics, together with the corresponding refinement and equality relation, formally in CSP-Agda. In order to demonstrate the proof capabilities of CSP-Agda, we prove in CSP-Agda selected algebraic laws of CSP based on the trace semantics. Because of the monadic settings, some adjustments need to be made to these laws.Next we implement the more advanced semantics of CSP, the stable fail-ures semantics and the failures divergences infinite traces semantics (FDI), in CSP-Agda, and define the corresponding refinement and equality relations. Direct proofs in these semantics are cumbersome, and we develop a tech-nique of showing algebraic laws in those semantics in an indirect way, which is much easier. We introduce divergence-respecting weak bisimilarity and strong bisimilarity in CSP-Agda, and show that both imply equivalence with respect to stable failures and FDI semantics. Now we show certain algebraic laws with respect to one of these two bisimilarity relations. As a case study, we model and verify a possible scenario for railways in CSP-Agda and in standard CSP tools.