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Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites

Fabio Ippolito, Gunter Hübner, Tim Claypole, Patrick Gane, Tim Claypole Orcid Logo

Polymers, Volume: 12, Issue: 6, Start page: 1295

Swansea University Author: Tim Claypole Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/polym12061295

Abstract

In previous investigations, it was found that the thermal properties of a polyamide 12 compound can be manipulated, using a designed filler, to improve the melting as well as crystallization behavior, determined for selective laser sintering. A common downside of the introduction of a non-flexing mi...

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Published in: Polymers
ISSN: 2073-4360
Published: MDPI AG 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa54392
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spelling 2020-10-16T14:53:43.5471893 v2 54392 2020-06-05 Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites 7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55 0000-0003-1393-9634 Tim Claypole Tim Claypole true false 2020-06-05 MECH In previous investigations, it was found that the thermal properties of a polyamide 12 compound can be manipulated, using a designed filler, to improve the melting as well as crystallization behavior, determined for selective laser sintering. A common downside of the introduction of a non-flexing mineral filler is the reduction of the mechanical properties, such as ductility. This paper investigates the influence of content and surface modification of limestone on the mechanical properties. The aim is to understand the effect of an optimized coupling agent on the properties of a compound, containing polyamide 12 filled with 10 wt % of surface modified calcium carbonate. A range of four mineral filler modifications was chosen to investigate their coupling effect, namely 6-amino hexanoic acid, ε-caprolactam, l-arginine or glutamic acid. The in advance surface modified fillers were then each used in combination with the polyamide 12 in a twin-screw extrusion process. With an optimized surface modifying agent, the tensile strength as well as elongation at break can be improved in comparison with uncoated filler implementation, such that up to 60% of the loss of ductility and toughness of a final part when using an untreated filler could be regained using an optimized surface modifier at a correct amount. With the tested filler grade and the specific tested filler amount, the optimized amount of 6-amino hexanoic acid was approx. 2.5 mmol of treatment agent per 100 m2 of CaCO3. These found improvements in a twin-screw extruded polyamide 12 compound show the possible usage of modified calcium carbonate as a functional filler in additive manufacturing and can potentially be transferred in a subsequent investigation in the selective laser sintering process. Journal Article Polymers 12 6 1295 MDPI AG 2073-4360 composite; limestone; calcium carbonate; polyamide 12; mechanical properties 5 6 2020 2020-06-05 10.3390/polym12061295 COLLEGE NANME Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE CODE MECH Swansea University 2020-10-16T14:53:43.5471893 2020-06-05T11:11:43.0490600 Fabio Ippolito 1 Gunter Hübner 2 Tim Claypole 3 Patrick Gane 4 Tim Claypole 0000-0003-1393-9634 5 54392__17431__38738541be104e7894626f81d48c684d.pdf 54392.pdf 2020-06-05T11:15:53.2875355 Output 1738377 application/pdf Version of Record true This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited true http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
spellingShingle Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
Tim Claypole
title_short Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
title_full Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
title_fullStr Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
title_full_unstemmed Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
title_sort Influence of the Surface Modification of Calcium Carbonate on Polyamide 12 Composites
author_id_str_mv 7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55
author_id_fullname_str_mv 7735385522f1e68a8775b4f709e91d55_***_Tim Claypole
author Tim Claypole
author2 Fabio Ippolito
Gunter Hübner
Tim Claypole
Patrick Gane
Tim Claypole
format Journal article
container_title Polymers
container_volume 12
container_issue 6
container_start_page 1295
publishDate 2020
institution Swansea University
issn 2073-4360
doi_str_mv 10.3390/polym12061295
publisher MDPI AG
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description In previous investigations, it was found that the thermal properties of a polyamide 12 compound can be manipulated, using a designed filler, to improve the melting as well as crystallization behavior, determined for selective laser sintering. A common downside of the introduction of a non-flexing mineral filler is the reduction of the mechanical properties, such as ductility. This paper investigates the influence of content and surface modification of limestone on the mechanical properties. The aim is to understand the effect of an optimized coupling agent on the properties of a compound, containing polyamide 12 filled with 10 wt % of surface modified calcium carbonate. A range of four mineral filler modifications was chosen to investigate their coupling effect, namely 6-amino hexanoic acid, ε-caprolactam, l-arginine or glutamic acid. The in advance surface modified fillers were then each used in combination with the polyamide 12 in a twin-screw extrusion process. With an optimized surface modifying agent, the tensile strength as well as elongation at break can be improved in comparison with uncoated filler implementation, such that up to 60% of the loss of ductility and toughness of a final part when using an untreated filler could be regained using an optimized surface modifier at a correct amount. With the tested filler grade and the specific tested filler amount, the optimized amount of 6-amino hexanoic acid was approx. 2.5 mmol of treatment agent per 100 m2 of CaCO3. These found improvements in a twin-screw extruded polyamide 12 compound show the possible usage of modified calcium carbonate as a functional filler in additive manufacturing and can potentially be transferred in a subsequent investigation in the selective laser sintering process.
published_date 2020-06-05T04:08:59Z
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score 10.900257