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Three dimensional printed degradable and conductive polymer scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells
Biomaterials Science, Volume: 8, Issue: 15, Pages: 4287 - 4298
Swansea University Author: Ilyas Khan
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DOI (Published version): 10.1039/d0bm00621a
Degradable and electroactive polymers have been widely used for various biomedical applications including biosensors, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the poor processability of these polymers hinders the fabrication of electroactive polymer structures into complex desirable ge...
|Published in:||Biomaterials Science|
Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
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Degradable and electroactive polymers have been widely used for various biomedical applications including biosensors, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, the poor processability of these polymers hinders the fabrication of electroactive polymer structures into complex desirable geometries. Herein, a block copolymer of tetraaniline (TA) and PCL, tetraaniline-b-polycaprolactone-b-tetraaniline (TPT) (possessing ~33% TA content), was synthesised and fabricated for the first time into a 3D printed electroactive biodegradable scaffold by direct-ink writing. This printable polymer ink was further formulated by the blending of TPT with high molecular weight PCL and directly 3D printed to generate a mechanically robust electroactive scaffold. The presence of TA content at 2.5% and 5% weight in relation to total PCL weight rendered the scaffold surface electrically and biologically active, in which fibronectin absorption and chondrogenic differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells over 28 days were enhanced, when compared to 0% TA. Our work demonstrates the formulation of a poorly processible materials (i.e., conductive polymers) into bio-inks able to produce 3D printed scaffolds and highlights the potential use of degradable and electroactive materials for cartilage tissue regeneration.