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A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment

Blair T. Crewther, Martin Hecht, Neill Potts, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Scott Drawer, Elizabeth Marshall, Christian Cook

Hormones and Behavior, Volume: 126, Start page: 104866

Swansea University Authors: Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Christian Cook

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Abstract

In sport, testosterone has been positioned as a substrate for motivation with both directional and time dependencies. However, evidence is scarce when considering the complexities of competitive sport and no work has explicitly modeled these dependencies. To address these gaps, we investigated the b...

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Published in: Hormones and Behavior
ISSN: 0018-506X
Published: Elsevier BV 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa55273
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However, evidence is scarce when considering the complexities of competitive sport and no work has explicitly modeled these dependencies. To address these gaps, we investigated the bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment. Thirty-six male athletes were monitored across training weeks before and after eight international rugby matches. Pre-breakfast measures of salivary testosterone and training motivation (1&#x2013;10 rating) were taken on training, competition, and recovery days (up to 40 tests). Using a continuous-time (CT) model, within-person estimates of autoregressive effects (persistence) and cross-lagged effects (relationships) were derived. A stronger, more persistent temporal association was identified for testosterone than for motivation. Cross-lagged effects verified that training motivation was positively related to testosterone at latter time points (p &lt; 0.001). Discrete-time analyses revealed a non-linear association; increasing in strength from a zero-time lag to peak after 2.83 days (standardized effect = 0.25), before dissipation over longer lagged intervals. The testosterone relationship with ensuing training motivation was also positive, but non-significant. Match effects also appeared (p &lt; 0.001) with a predicted decline in training motivation, but a rise in testosterone, at match onset. In summary, a positive association emerged between within-person fluctuations in self-appraised motivation to train and testosterone concentration in an elite rugby environment. 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spelling 2021-12-01T11:58:36.4701059 v2 55273 2020-09-29 A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false e7760e9a222fd3d493327284466374e4 Christian Cook Christian Cook true false 2020-09-29 STSC In sport, testosterone has been positioned as a substrate for motivation with both directional and time dependencies. However, evidence is scarce when considering the complexities of competitive sport and no work has explicitly modeled these dependencies. To address these gaps, we investigated the bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment. Thirty-six male athletes were monitored across training weeks before and after eight international rugby matches. Pre-breakfast measures of salivary testosterone and training motivation (1–10 rating) were taken on training, competition, and recovery days (up to 40 tests). Using a continuous-time (CT) model, within-person estimates of autoregressive effects (persistence) and cross-lagged effects (relationships) were derived. A stronger, more persistent temporal association was identified for testosterone than for motivation. Cross-lagged effects verified that training motivation was positively related to testosterone at latter time points (p < 0.001). Discrete-time analyses revealed a non-linear association; increasing in strength from a zero-time lag to peak after 2.83 days (standardized effect = 0.25), before dissipation over longer lagged intervals. The testosterone relationship with ensuing training motivation was also positive, but non-significant. Match effects also appeared (p < 0.001) with a predicted decline in training motivation, but a rise in testosterone, at match onset. In summary, a positive association emerged between within-person fluctuations in self-appraised motivation to train and testosterone concentration in an elite rugby environment. The lagged, non-linear nature of this relationship and match predictions on both outcomes support, and extend, theoretical models linking testosterone and competitive behaviors. Journal Article Hormones and Behavior 126 104866 Elsevier BV 0018-506X Neuroendocrine, Training stress, Competitiveness, Adaptation, Dominance 1 11 2020 2020-11-01 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104866 COLLEGE NANME Sport and Exercise Sciences COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2021-12-01T11:58:36.4701059 2020-09-29T09:15:38.7013124 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences Blair T. Crewther 1 Martin Hecht 2 Neill Potts 3 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 4 Scott Drawer 5 Elizabeth Marshall 6 Christian Cook 7 55273__18621__6068198e015f4e509dc4590cd2a46eb1.pdf 55273.pdf 2020-11-09T17:48:04.1351294 Output 347866 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true 2021-10-09T00:00:00.0000000 ©2020 All rights reserved. All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License (CC-BY-NC-ND) true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
title A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
spellingShingle A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
Liam Kilduff
Christian Cook
title_short A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
title_full A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
title_fullStr A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
title_full_unstemmed A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
title_sort A longitudinal investigation of bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment
author_id_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
e7760e9a222fd3d493327284466374e4
author_id_fullname_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam Kilduff
e7760e9a222fd3d493327284466374e4_***_Christian Cook
author Liam Kilduff
Christian Cook
author2 Blair T. Crewther
Martin Hecht
Neill Potts
Liam Kilduff
Scott Drawer
Elizabeth Marshall
Christian Cook
format Journal article
container_title Hormones and Behavior
container_volume 126
container_start_page 104866
publishDate 2020
institution Swansea University
issn 0018-506X
doi_str_mv 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104866
publisher Elsevier BV
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences
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description In sport, testosterone has been positioned as a substrate for motivation with both directional and time dependencies. However, evidence is scarce when considering the complexities of competitive sport and no work has explicitly modeled these dependencies. To address these gaps, we investigated the bidirectional and time-dependent interrelationships between testosterone and training motivation in an elite rugby environment. Thirty-six male athletes were monitored across training weeks before and after eight international rugby matches. Pre-breakfast measures of salivary testosterone and training motivation (1–10 rating) were taken on training, competition, and recovery days (up to 40 tests). Using a continuous-time (CT) model, within-person estimates of autoregressive effects (persistence) and cross-lagged effects (relationships) were derived. A stronger, more persistent temporal association was identified for testosterone than for motivation. Cross-lagged effects verified that training motivation was positively related to testosterone at latter time points (p < 0.001). Discrete-time analyses revealed a non-linear association; increasing in strength from a zero-time lag to peak after 2.83 days (standardized effect = 0.25), before dissipation over longer lagged intervals. The testosterone relationship with ensuing training motivation was also positive, but non-significant. Match effects also appeared (p < 0.001) with a predicted decline in training motivation, but a rise in testosterone, at match onset. In summary, a positive association emerged between within-person fluctuations in self-appraised motivation to train and testosterone concentration in an elite rugby environment. The lagged, non-linear nature of this relationship and match predictions on both outcomes support, and extend, theoretical models linking testosterone and competitive behaviors.
published_date 2020-11-01T04:06:03Z
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