No Cover Image

Journal article 605 views 111 downloads

Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

Mark Waldron Orcid Logo, Rebecca Fowler, Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Jamie Tallent, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Owen Jeffries

Sports Medicine, Volume: 51, Issue: 7, Pages: 1509 - 1525

Swansea University Authors: Mark Waldron Orcid Logo, Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo

  • 56376.pdf

    PDF | Version of Record

    This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

    Download (2.17MB)

Abstract

BackgroundHeat acclimation and acclimatisation (HA) is typically used to enhance tolerance to the heat, thereby improving performance. HA might also confer a positive adaptation to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), although this has been historically debated and requires clarification via meta-an...

Full description

Published in: Sports Medicine
ISSN: 0112-1642 1179-2035
Published: Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2021
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa56376
Tags: Add Tag
No Tags, Be the first to tag this record!
first_indexed 2021-03-05T09:44:41Z
last_indexed 2021-08-14T03:20:18Z
id cronfa56376
recordtype SURis
fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2021-08-13T12:47:50.0119906</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>56376</id><entry>2021-03-05</entry><title>Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa</sid><ORCID>0000-0002-2720-4615</ORCID><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Waldron</surname><name>Mark Waldron</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author><author><sid>72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807</sid><ORCID>0000-0002-3297-9335</ORCID><firstname>Shane</firstname><surname>Heffernan</surname><name>Shane Heffernan</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author><author><sid>972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98</sid><ORCID>0000-0001-9449-2293</ORCID><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><name>Liam Kilduff</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2021-03-05</date><deptcode>STSC</deptcode><abstract>BackgroundHeat acclimation and acclimatisation (HA) is typically used to enhance tolerance to the heat, thereby improving performance. HA might also confer a positive adaptation to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), although this has been historically debated and requires clarification via meta-analysis.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse all studies (with and without control groups) that have investigated the effect of HA on VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments; (2) Conduct meta-regressions to establish the moderating effect of selected variables on VO2max adaptation following HA.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. The studies were screened using search criteria for eligibility. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion across four separate meta-analyses: (1) Thermoneutral VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (2) Hot VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (3) Thermoneutral VO2max measurement; HA vs. control groups; (4) Hot VO2max measurement, HA vs. control groups. Meta-regressions were performed for each meta-analysis based on: isothermal vs. iso-intensity programmes, days of heat exposure, HA ambient temperature (&#xB0;C), heat index, HA session duration (min), ambient thermal load (HA session x ambient temperature), mean mechanical intensity (W) and the post-HA testing period (days).ResultsThe meta-analysis of pre&#x2013;post differences in thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated small-to-moderate improvements in VO2max (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.42, 95% CI 0.24&#x2013;0.59, P&#x2009;&lt;&#x2009;0.001), whereas moderate improvements were found for the equivalent analysis of hot VO2max changes (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.63, 95% CI 0.26&#x2013;1.00, P&#x2009;&lt;&#x2009;0.001), which were positively moderated by the number of days post-testing (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.033, &#x3B2;&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.172). Meta-analysis of control vs. HA thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated a small improvement in VO2max in HA compared to control (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.30, 95% CI 0.06&#x2013;0.54, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.014) and this effect was larger for the equivalent hot VO2max analysis where a higher (moderate-to-large) improvement in VO2max was found (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.75, 95% CI 0.22&#x2013;1.27, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.005), with the number of HA days (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.018; &#x3B2;&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.291) and the ambient temperature during HA (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.003; &#x3B2;&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.650) positively moderating this effect.ConclusionHA can enhance VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments, with or without control group consideration, by at least a small and up to a moderate&#x2013;large amount, with the larger improvements occurring in the heat. Ambient heat, number of induction days and post-testing days can explain some of the changes in hot VO2max adaptation.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Sports Medicine</journal><volume>51</volume><journalNumber>7</journalNumber><paginationStart>1509</paginationStart><paginationEnd>1525</paginationEnd><publisher>Springer Science and Business Media LLC</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>0112-1642</issnPrint><issnElectronic>1179-2035</issnElectronic><keywords/><publishedDay>1</publishedDay><publishedMonth>7</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-07-01</publishedDate><doi>10.1007/s40279-021-01445-6</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Sport and Exercise Sciences</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>STSC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2021-08-13T12:47:50.0119906</lastEdited><Created>2021-03-05T09:42:34.1981069</Created><path><level id="1">Faculty of Science and Engineering</level><level id="2">School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Waldron</surname><orcid>0000-0002-2720-4615</orcid><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Rebecca</firstname><surname>Fowler</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Shane</firstname><surname>Heffernan</surname><orcid>0000-0002-3297-9335</orcid><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Jamie</firstname><surname>Tallent</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9449-2293</orcid><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Owen</firstname><surname>Jeffries</surname><order>6</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>56376__20107__5cc147528cef4d0c8f2fa19f7cb76d4b.pdf</filename><originalFilename>56376.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2021-06-09T15:37:17.7563844</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>2275484</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><documentNotes>This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language><licence>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</licence></document></documents><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2021-08-13T12:47:50.0119906 v2 56376 2021-03-05 Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression 70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa 0000-0002-2720-4615 Mark Waldron Mark Waldron true false 72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807 0000-0002-3297-9335 Shane Heffernan Shane Heffernan true false 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false 2021-03-05 STSC BackgroundHeat acclimation and acclimatisation (HA) is typically used to enhance tolerance to the heat, thereby improving performance. HA might also confer a positive adaptation to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), although this has been historically debated and requires clarification via meta-analysis.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse all studies (with and without control groups) that have investigated the effect of HA on VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments; (2) Conduct meta-regressions to establish the moderating effect of selected variables on VO2max adaptation following HA.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. The studies were screened using search criteria for eligibility. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion across four separate meta-analyses: (1) Thermoneutral VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (2) Hot VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (3) Thermoneutral VO2max measurement; HA vs. control groups; (4) Hot VO2max measurement, HA vs. control groups. Meta-regressions were performed for each meta-analysis based on: isothermal vs. iso-intensity programmes, days of heat exposure, HA ambient temperature (°C), heat index, HA session duration (min), ambient thermal load (HA session x ambient temperature), mean mechanical intensity (W) and the post-HA testing period (days).ResultsThe meta-analysis of pre–post differences in thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated small-to-moderate improvements in VO2max (Hedges’ g = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.59, P < 0.001), whereas moderate improvements were found for the equivalent analysis of hot VO2max changes (Hedges’ g = 0.63, 95% CI 0.26–1.00, P < 0.001), which were positively moderated by the number of days post-testing (P = 0.033, β = 0.172). Meta-analysis of control vs. HA thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated a small improvement in VO2max in HA compared to control (Hedges’ g = 0.30, 95% CI 0.06–0.54, P = 0.014) and this effect was larger for the equivalent hot VO2max analysis where a higher (moderate-to-large) improvement in VO2max was found (Hedges’ g = 0.75, 95% CI 0.22–1.27, P = 0.005), with the number of HA days (P = 0.018; β = 0.291) and the ambient temperature during HA (P = 0.003; β = 0.650) positively moderating this effect.ConclusionHA can enhance VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments, with or without control group consideration, by at least a small and up to a moderate–large amount, with the larger improvements occurring in the heat. Ambient heat, number of induction days and post-testing days can explain some of the changes in hot VO2max adaptation. Journal Article Sports Medicine 51 7 1509 1525 Springer Science and Business Media LLC 0112-1642 1179-2035 1 7 2021 2021-07-01 10.1007/s40279-021-01445-6 COLLEGE NANME Sport and Exercise Sciences COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2021-08-13T12:47:50.0119906 2021-03-05T09:42:34.1981069 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences Mark Waldron 0000-0002-2720-4615 1 Rebecca Fowler 2 Shane Heffernan 0000-0002-3297-9335 3 Jamie Tallent 4 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 5 Owen Jeffries 6 56376__20107__5cc147528cef4d0c8f2fa19f7cb76d4b.pdf 56376.pdf 2021-06-09T15:37:17.7563844 Output 2275484 application/pdf Version of Record true This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
spellingShingle Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
Mark Waldron
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
title_short Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
title_full Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
title_fullStr Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
title_full_unstemmed Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
title_sort Effects of Heat Acclimation and Acclimatisation on Maximal Aerobic Capacity Compared to Exercise Alone in Both Thermoneutral and Hot Environments: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression
author_id_str_mv 70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa
72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
author_id_fullname_str_mv 70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa_***_Mark Waldron
72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807_***_Shane Heffernan
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam Kilduff
author Mark Waldron
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
author2 Mark Waldron
Rebecca Fowler
Shane Heffernan
Jamie Tallent
Liam Kilduff
Owen Jeffries
format Journal article
container_title Sports Medicine
container_volume 51
container_issue 7
container_start_page 1509
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 0112-1642
1179-2035
doi_str_mv 10.1007/s40279-021-01445-6
publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description BackgroundHeat acclimation and acclimatisation (HA) is typically used to enhance tolerance to the heat, thereby improving performance. HA might also confer a positive adaptation to maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), although this has been historically debated and requires clarification via meta-analysis.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse all studies (with and without control groups) that have investigated the effect of HA on VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments; (2) Conduct meta-regressions to establish the moderating effect of selected variables on VO2max adaptation following HA.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. The studies were screened using search criteria for eligibility. Twenty-eight peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion across four separate meta-analyses: (1) Thermoneutral VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (2) Hot VO2max within-participants (pre-to-post HA); (3) Thermoneutral VO2max measurement; HA vs. control groups; (4) Hot VO2max measurement, HA vs. control groups. Meta-regressions were performed for each meta-analysis based on: isothermal vs. iso-intensity programmes, days of heat exposure, HA ambient temperature (°C), heat index, HA session duration (min), ambient thermal load (HA session x ambient temperature), mean mechanical intensity (W) and the post-HA testing period (days).ResultsThe meta-analysis of pre–post differences in thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated small-to-moderate improvements in VO2max (Hedges’ g = 0.42, 95% CI 0.24–0.59, P < 0.001), whereas moderate improvements were found for the equivalent analysis of hot VO2max changes (Hedges’ g = 0.63, 95% CI 0.26–1.00, P < 0.001), which were positively moderated by the number of days post-testing (P = 0.033, β = 0.172). Meta-analysis of control vs. HA thermoneutral VO2max demonstrated a small improvement in VO2max in HA compared to control (Hedges’ g = 0.30, 95% CI 0.06–0.54, P = 0.014) and this effect was larger for the equivalent hot VO2max analysis where a higher (moderate-to-large) improvement in VO2max was found (Hedges’ g = 0.75, 95% CI 0.22–1.27, P = 0.005), with the number of HA days (P = 0.018; β = 0.291) and the ambient temperature during HA (P = 0.003; β = 0.650) positively moderating this effect.ConclusionHA can enhance VO2max adaptation in thermoneutral or hot environments, with or without control group consideration, by at least a small and up to a moderate–large amount, with the larger improvements occurring in the heat. Ambient heat, number of induction days and post-testing days can explain some of the changes in hot VO2max adaptation.
published_date 2021-07-01T04:11:17Z
_version_ 1763753776829693952
score 11.016861