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Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby

Mark R. Antrobus, Jon Brazier, Georgina K. Stebbings, Stephen H. Day, Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Robert M. Erskine, Alun G. Williams

Sports, Volume: 9, Issue: 2, Start page: 19

Swansea University Authors: Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.3390/sports9020019

Abstract

Elite rugby league and union have some of the highest reported rates of concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) in professional sport due in part to their full-contact high-velocity collision-based nature. Currently, concussions are the most commonly reported match injury during the tackle for both...

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Published in: Sports
ISSN: 2075-4663
Published: MDPI AG 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa56707
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spelling 2021-05-19T15:12:35.5899126 v2 56707 2021-04-20 Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby 72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807 0000-0002-3297-9335 Shane Heffernan Shane Heffernan true false 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false 2021-04-20 STSC Elite rugby league and union have some of the highest reported rates of concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) in professional sport due in part to their full-contact high-velocity collision-based nature. Currently, concussions are the most commonly reported match injury during the tackle for both the ball carrier and the tackler (8–28 concussions per 1000 player match hours) and reports exist of reduced cognitive function and long-term health consequences that can end a playing career and produce continued ill health. Concussion is a complex phenotype, influenced by environmental factors and an individual’s genetic predisposition. This article reviews concussion incidence within elite rugby and addresses the biomechanics and pathophysiology of concussion and how genetic predisposition may influence incidence, severity and outcome. Associations have been reported between a variety of genetic variants and traumatic brain injury. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of genetic associations with concussion within elite rugby players. Due to a growing understanding of the molecular characteristics underpinning the pathophysiology of concussion, investigating genetic variation within elite rugby is a viable and worthy proposition. Therefore, we propose from this review that several genetic variants within or near candidate genes of interest, namely APOE, MAPT, IL6R, COMT, SLC6A4, 5-HTTLPR, DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, BDNF and GRIN2A, warrant further study within elite rugby and other sports involving high-velocity collisions. Journal Article Sports 9 2 19 MDPI AG 2075-4663 genomics; rugby; polymorphisms; concussion; mild traumatic brain injury 22 1 2021 2021-01-22 10.3390/sports9020019 COLLEGE NANME Sport and Exercise Sciences COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2021-05-19T15:12:35.5899126 2021-04-20T09:11:31.2861476 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences Mark R. Antrobus 1 Jon Brazier 2 Georgina K. Stebbings 3 Stephen H. Day 4 Shane Heffernan 0000-0002-3297-9335 5 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 6 Robert M. Erskine 7 Alun G. Williams 8 56707__19701__4de97409d7e74bf895fddc72735dc92e.pdf 56707.pdf 2021-04-20T09:13:43.2701439 Output 876179 application/pdf Version of Record true Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
spellingShingle Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
title_short Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
title_full Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
title_fullStr Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
title_full_unstemmed Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
title_sort Genetic Factors That Could Affect Concussion Risk in Elite Rugby
author_id_str_mv 72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
author_id_fullname_str_mv 72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807_***_Shane Heffernan
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam Kilduff
author Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
author2 Mark R. Antrobus
Jon Brazier
Georgina K. Stebbings
Stephen H. Day
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
Robert M. Erskine
Alun G. Williams
format Journal article
container_title Sports
container_volume 9
container_issue 2
container_start_page 19
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 2075-4663
doi_str_mv 10.3390/sports9020019
publisher MDPI AG
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Sport and Exercise Sciences
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description Elite rugby league and union have some of the highest reported rates of concussion (mild traumatic brain injury) in professional sport due in part to their full-contact high-velocity collision-based nature. Currently, concussions are the most commonly reported match injury during the tackle for both the ball carrier and the tackler (8–28 concussions per 1000 player match hours) and reports exist of reduced cognitive function and long-term health consequences that can end a playing career and produce continued ill health. Concussion is a complex phenotype, influenced by environmental factors and an individual’s genetic predisposition. This article reviews concussion incidence within elite rugby and addresses the biomechanics and pathophysiology of concussion and how genetic predisposition may influence incidence, severity and outcome. Associations have been reported between a variety of genetic variants and traumatic brain injury. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of genetic associations with concussion within elite rugby players. Due to a growing understanding of the molecular characteristics underpinning the pathophysiology of concussion, investigating genetic variation within elite rugby is a viable and worthy proposition. Therefore, we propose from this review that several genetic variants within or near candidate genes of interest, namely APOE, MAPT, IL6R, COMT, SLC6A4, 5-HTTLPR, DRD2, DRD4, ANKK1, BDNF and GRIN2A, warrant further study within elite rugby and other sports involving high-velocity collisions.
published_date 2021-01-22T04:04:41Z
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