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Neurochemistry of response inhibition and interference in gambling disorder: a preliminary study of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+) and glutamate–glutamine (Glx)
CNS Spectrums, Volume: 27, Issue: 4, Pages: 1 - 11
Swansea University Authors: Kathrin Weidacker , Stephen Johnston , Frederic Boy , Simon Dymond
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© The Author(s), 2021. This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licenceDownload (1.27MB)
DOI (Published version): 10.1017/s1092852921000316
BackgroundNeurobehavioral research on the role of impulsivity in gambling disorder (GD) has produced heterogeneous findings. Impulsivity is multifaceted with different experimental tasks measuring different subprocesses, such as response inhibition and distractor interference. Little is known about...
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Cambridge University Press (CUP)
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BackgroundNeurobehavioral research on the role of impulsivity in gambling disorder (GD) has produced heterogeneous findings. Impulsivity is multifaceted with different experimental tasks measuring different subprocesses, such as response inhibition and distractor interference. Little is known about the neurochemistry of inhibition and interference in GD.MethodsWe investigated inhibition with the stop signal task (SST) and interference with the Eriksen Flanker task, and related performance to metabolite levels in individuals with and without GD. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to record glutamate–glutamine (Glx/Cr) and inhibitory, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+/Cr) levels in the dorsal ACC (dACC), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), and an occipital control voxel.ResultsWe found slower processing of complex stimuli in the Flanker task in GD (P < .001, η 2 p = 0.78), and no group differences in SST performance. Levels of dACC Glx/Cr and frequency of incongruent errors were correlated positively in GD only (r = 0.92, P = .001). Larger positive correlations were found for those with GD between dACC GABA+/Cr and SST Go error response times (z = 2.83, P = .004), as well as between dACC Glx/Cr and frequency of Go errors (z = 2.23, P = .03), indicating general Glx-related error processing deficits. Both groups expressed equivalent positive correlations between posterror slowing and Glx/Cr in the right dlPFC (GD: r = 0.74, P = .02; non-GD: r = .71, P = .01).ConclusionInhibition and interference impairments are reflected in dACC baseline metabolite levels and error processing deficits in GD.
Gambling; MRS; GABA; response inhibition; response interference
Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
This work was supported by the International Center for Responsible Gaming (ICRG) and intra-mural funding from the Department of Psychology, Swansea University.