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The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

Jenny Peel, Melitta McNarry Orcid Logo, Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Venturino R. Nevola, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Mark Waldron Orcid Logo

Sports Medicine, Volume: 51, Issue: 11, Pages: 2351 - 2371

Swansea University Authors: Jenny Peel, Melitta McNarry Orcid Logo, Shane Heffernan Orcid Logo, Liam Kilduff Orcid Logo, Mark Waldron Orcid Logo

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Abstract

BackgroundThe ergogenic effects of dietary supplements on endurance exercise performance are well-established; however, their efficacy in hot environmental conditions has not been systematically evaluated.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse studies investigating the effects of selected dietary supplements...

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Published in: Sports Medicine
ISSN: 0112-1642 1179-2035
Published: Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2021
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Supplements were included if they were deemed to: (a) have a strong evidence base for &#x2018;directly&#x2019; improving thermoneutral endurance performance, based on current position statements, or (b) have a proposed mechanism of action that related to modifiable factors associated with thermal balance. (2) To conduct meta-regressions to evaluate the moderating effect of selected variables on endurance performance and core temperature responses in the heat following dietary supplementation.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. After screening, 25 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion, across three separate meta-analyses: (1) exercise performance; (2) end core temperature; (3) submaximal core temperature. The moderating effect of several variables were assessed via sub-analysis and meta-regression.ResultsOverall, dietary supplementation had a trivial significant positive effect on exercise performance (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.18, 95% CI 0.007&#x2013;0.352, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.042), a trivial non-significant positive effect on submaximal core temperature (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.18, 95% CI &#x2212; 0.021 to 0.379, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.080) and a small non-significant positive effect on end core temperature (Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.20, 95% CI &#x2212; 0.041 to 0.439, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.104) in the heat. There was a non-significant effect of individual supplements on exercise performance (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.973) and submaximal core temperature (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.599). However, end core temperature was significantly affected by supplement type (P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.003), which was attributable to caffeine&#x2019;s large significant positive effect (n&#x2009;=&#x2009;8; Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.82, 95% CI 0.433&#x2013;1.202, P&#x2009;&lt;&#x2009;0.001) and taurine&#x2019;s medium significant negative effect (n&#x2009;=&#x2009;1; Hedges&#x2019; g&#x2009;=&#x2009;&#x2212; 0.96, 95% CI &#x2212; 1.855 to &#x2212; 0.069, P&#x2009;=&#x2009;0.035).ConclusionSupplements such as caffeine and nitrates do not enhance endurance performance in the heat, with caffeine also increasing core temperature responses. Some amino acids might offer the greatest performance benefits in the heat. Exercising in the heat negatively affected the efficacy of many dietary supplements, indicating that further research is needed and current guidelines for performance in hot environments likely require revision.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Sports Medicine</journal><volume>51</volume><journalNumber>11</journalNumber><paginationStart>2351</paginationStart><paginationEnd>2371</paginationEnd><publisher>Springer Science and Business Media LLC</publisher><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>0112-1642</issnPrint><issnElectronic>1179-2035</issnElectronic><keywords/><publishedDay>1</publishedDay><publishedMonth>11</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-11-01</publishedDate><doi>10.1007/s40279-021-01500-2</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Science and Engineering - Faculty</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>FGSEN</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2021-10-22T17:59:09.4750038</lastEdited><Created>2021-06-08T12:01:35.5598133</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Sports Science</level></path><authors><author><firstname>Jenny</firstname><surname>Peel</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>Melitta</firstname><surname>McNarry</surname><orcid>0000-0003-0813-7477</orcid><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>Shane</firstname><surname>Heffernan</surname><orcid>0000-0002-3297-9335</orcid><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>Venturino R.</firstname><surname>Nevola</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9449-2293</orcid><order>5</order></author><author><firstname>Mark</firstname><surname>Waldron</surname><orcid>0000-0002-2720-4615</orcid><order>6</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>57057__20285__548a4c92b75b4127b93854a89e97780a.pdf</filename><originalFilename>57057.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2021-06-28T16:38:38.2204461</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>5004078</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Version of Record</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><documentNotes>&#xA9; The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</documentNotes><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language><licence>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</licence></document></documents><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2021-10-22T17:59:09.4750038 v2 57057 2021-06-08 The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression 86316fdeb6b4ee7ce0206f789eec781c Jenny Peel Jenny Peel true false 062f5697ff59f004bc8c713955988398 0000-0003-0813-7477 Melitta McNarry Melitta McNarry true false 72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807 0000-0002-3297-9335 Shane Heffernan Shane Heffernan true false 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false 70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa 0000-0002-2720-4615 Mark Waldron Mark Waldron true false 2021-06-08 FGSEN BackgroundThe ergogenic effects of dietary supplements on endurance exercise performance are well-established; however, their efficacy in hot environmental conditions has not been systematically evaluated.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse studies investigating the effects of selected dietary supplements on endurance performance and core temperature responses in the heat. Supplements were included if they were deemed to: (a) have a strong evidence base for ‘directly’ improving thermoneutral endurance performance, based on current position statements, or (b) have a proposed mechanism of action that related to modifiable factors associated with thermal balance. (2) To conduct meta-regressions to evaluate the moderating effect of selected variables on endurance performance and core temperature responses in the heat following dietary supplementation.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. After screening, 25 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion, across three separate meta-analyses: (1) exercise performance; (2) end core temperature; (3) submaximal core temperature. The moderating effect of several variables were assessed via sub-analysis and meta-regression.ResultsOverall, dietary supplementation had a trivial significant positive effect on exercise performance (Hedges’ g = 0.18, 95% CI 0.007–0.352, P = 0.042), a trivial non-significant positive effect on submaximal core temperature (Hedges’ g = 0.18, 95% CI − 0.021 to 0.379, P = 0.080) and a small non-significant positive effect on end core temperature (Hedges’ g = 0.20, 95% CI − 0.041 to 0.439, P = 0.104) in the heat. There was a non-significant effect of individual supplements on exercise performance (P = 0.973) and submaximal core temperature (P = 0.599). However, end core temperature was significantly affected by supplement type (P = 0.003), which was attributable to caffeine’s large significant positive effect (n = 8; Hedges’ g = 0.82, 95% CI 0.433–1.202, P < 0.001) and taurine’s medium significant negative effect (n = 1; Hedges’ g = − 0.96, 95% CI − 1.855 to − 0.069, P = 0.035).ConclusionSupplements such as caffeine and nitrates do not enhance endurance performance in the heat, with caffeine also increasing core temperature responses. Some amino acids might offer the greatest performance benefits in the heat. Exercising in the heat negatively affected the efficacy of many dietary supplements, indicating that further research is needed and current guidelines for performance in hot environments likely require revision. Journal Article Sports Medicine 51 11 2351 2371 Springer Science and Business Media LLC 0112-1642 1179-2035 1 11 2021 2021-11-01 10.1007/s40279-021-01500-2 COLLEGE NANME Science and Engineering - Faculty COLLEGE CODE FGSEN Swansea University 2021-10-22T17:59:09.4750038 2021-06-08T12:01:35.5598133 College of Engineering Sports Science Jenny Peel 1 Melitta McNarry 0000-0003-0813-7477 2 Shane Heffernan 0000-0002-3297-9335 3 Venturino R. Nevola 4 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 5 Mark Waldron 0000-0002-2720-4615 6 57057__20285__548a4c92b75b4127b93854a89e97780a.pdf 57057.pdf 2021-06-28T16:38:38.2204461 Output 5004078 application/pdf Version of Record true © The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
spellingShingle The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
Jenny Peel
Melitta McNarry
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
Mark Waldron
title_short The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
title_full The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
title_fullStr The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
title_full_unstemmed The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
title_sort The Effect of Dietary Supplements on Endurance Exercise Performance and Core Temperature in Hot Environments: A Meta-analysis and Meta-regression
author_id_str_mv 86316fdeb6b4ee7ce0206f789eec781c
062f5697ff59f004bc8c713955988398
72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa
author_id_fullname_str_mv 86316fdeb6b4ee7ce0206f789eec781c_***_Jenny Peel
062f5697ff59f004bc8c713955988398_***_Melitta McNarry
72c0b36891dfbec0378c0d0f7916e807_***_Shane Heffernan
972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam Kilduff
70db7c6c54d46f5e70b39e5ae0a056fa_***_Mark Waldron
author Jenny Peel
Melitta McNarry
Shane Heffernan
Liam Kilduff
Mark Waldron
author2 Jenny Peel
Melitta McNarry
Shane Heffernan
Venturino R. Nevola
Liam Kilduff
Mark Waldron
format Journal article
container_title Sports Medicine
container_volume 51
container_issue 11
container_start_page 2351
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 0112-1642
1179-2035
doi_str_mv 10.1007/s40279-021-01500-2
publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
college_str College of Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Sports Science{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Sports Science
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description BackgroundThe ergogenic effects of dietary supplements on endurance exercise performance are well-established; however, their efficacy in hot environmental conditions has not been systematically evaluated.Objectives(1) To meta-analyse studies investigating the effects of selected dietary supplements on endurance performance and core temperature responses in the heat. Supplements were included if they were deemed to: (a) have a strong evidence base for ‘directly’ improving thermoneutral endurance performance, based on current position statements, or (b) have a proposed mechanism of action that related to modifiable factors associated with thermal balance. (2) To conduct meta-regressions to evaluate the moderating effect of selected variables on endurance performance and core temperature responses in the heat following dietary supplementation.MethodsA search was performed using various databases in May 2020. After screening, 25 peer-reviewed articles were identified for inclusion, across three separate meta-analyses: (1) exercise performance; (2) end core temperature; (3) submaximal core temperature. The moderating effect of several variables were assessed via sub-analysis and meta-regression.ResultsOverall, dietary supplementation had a trivial significant positive effect on exercise performance (Hedges’ g = 0.18, 95% CI 0.007–0.352, P = 0.042), a trivial non-significant positive effect on submaximal core temperature (Hedges’ g = 0.18, 95% CI − 0.021 to 0.379, P = 0.080) and a small non-significant positive effect on end core temperature (Hedges’ g = 0.20, 95% CI − 0.041 to 0.439, P = 0.104) in the heat. There was a non-significant effect of individual supplements on exercise performance (P = 0.973) and submaximal core temperature (P = 0.599). However, end core temperature was significantly affected by supplement type (P = 0.003), which was attributable to caffeine’s large significant positive effect (n = 8; Hedges’ g = 0.82, 95% CI 0.433–1.202, P < 0.001) and taurine’s medium significant negative effect (n = 1; Hedges’ g = − 0.96, 95% CI − 1.855 to − 0.069, P = 0.035).ConclusionSupplements such as caffeine and nitrates do not enhance endurance performance in the heat, with caffeine also increasing core temperature responses. Some amino acids might offer the greatest performance benefits in the heat. Exercising in the heat negatively affected the efficacy of many dietary supplements, indicating that further research is needed and current guidelines for performance in hot environments likely require revision.
published_date 2021-11-01T04:12:59Z
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