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Pancreatic β-Cell Function Is Associated with Augmented Counterregulation to In-Exercise Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

Olivia McCarthy, Jason Pitt, MAX L. ECKSTEIN, OTHMAR MOSER, Steve Bain Orcid Logo, Richard Bracken Orcid Logo

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Volume: 53, Issue: 7, Pages: 1326 - 1333

Swansea University Authors: Olivia McCarthy, Jason Pitt, Steve Bain Orcid Logo, Richard Bracken Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Purpose This study aimed to investigate the influence of residual β-cell function on counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycemia during acute physical exercise in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A secondary aim was to explore relationships between biomarkers of pancreatic β-cell function...

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Published in: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
ISSN: 0195-9131 1530-0315
Published: Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health) 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa57228
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Abstract: Purpose This study aimed to investigate the influence of residual β-cell function on counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycemia during acute physical exercise in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A secondary aim was to explore relationships between biomarkers of pancreatic β-cell function and indices of glycemia following acute exercise including the nocturnal period.Methods This study involved an exploratory, secondary analysis of data from individuals with T1D who partook in a four-peroid, randomized, cross-over trial involving a bout of evening exercise followed by an overnight stay in a clinical laboratory facility. Participants were split into two groups: (i) a stimulated C-peptide level of ≥30 pmol⋅L−1 (low-level secretors [LLS], n = 6) or (ii) <30 pmol⋅L−1 (microsecretors [MS], n = 10). Pancreatic hormones (C-peptide, proinsulin, and glucagon), catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), and metabolic biomarkers (blood glucose, blood lactate, and β-hydroxybutyrate) were measured at rest, during exercise with and without a hypoglycemic (blood glucose ≤3.9 mmol⋅L−1) episode, and throughout a 13-h postexercise period. Interstitial glucose monitoring was used to assess indices of glycemic variability.Results During in-exercise hypoglycemia, LLS presented with greater sympathoadrenal (EPI and NE P ≤ 0.05) and ketone (P < 0.01) concentrations. Glucagon remained similar (P = 0.09). Over exercise, LLS experienced larger drops in C-peptide and proinsulin (both P < 0.01) as well as greater increases in EPI (P < 0.01) and β-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.03). LLS spent less time in the interstitial-derived hypoglycemic range acutely postexercise and had lower glucose variability throughout the nocturnal period.Conclusion Higher residual β-cell function was associated with greater sympathoadrenal and ketonic responses to exercise-induced hypoglycemia as well as improved glycemia leading into and throughout the nocturnal hours. Even a minimal amount of residual β-cell function confers a beneficial effect on glycemic outcomes during and after exercise in people with T1D.
College: College of Engineering
Issue: 7
Start Page: 1326
End Page: 1333