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Machine learning for detection of stenoses and aneurysms: application in a physiologically realistic virtual patient database
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology, Volume: 20, Issue: 6, Pages: 2097 - 2146
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This study presents an application of machine learning (ML) methods for detecting the presence of stenoses and aneurysms in the human arterial system. Four major forms of arterial disease—carotid artery stenosis (CAS), subclavian artery stenosis (SAS), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and abdomina...
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Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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This study presents an application of machine learning (ML) methods for detecting the presence of stenoses and aneurysms in the human arterial system. Four major forms of arterial disease—carotid artery stenosis (CAS), subclavian artery stenosis (SAS), peripheral arterial disease (PAD), and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA)—are considered. The ML methods are trained and tested on a physiologically realistic virtual patient database (VPD) containing 28,868 healthy subjects, adapted from the authors previous work and augmented to include disease. It is found that the tree-based methods of Random Forest and Gradient Boosting outperform other approaches. The performance of ML methods is quantified through the F1 score and computation of sensitivities and specificities. When using six haemodynamic measurements (pressure in the common carotid, brachial, and radial arteries; and flow-rate in the common carotid, brachial, and femoral arteries), it is found that maximum F1 scores larger than 0.9 are achieved for CAS and PAD, larger than 0.85 for SAS, and larger than 0.98 for both low- and high-severity AAAs. Corresponding sensitivities and specificities are larger than 90% for CAS and PAD, larger than 85% for SAS, and larger than 98% for both low- and high-severity AAAs. When reducing the number of measurements, performance is degraded by less than 5% when three measurements are used, and less than 10% when only two measurements are used for classification. For AAA, it is shown that F1 scores larger than 0.85 and corresponding sensitivities and specificities larger than 85% are achievable when using only a single measurement. The results are encouraging to pursue AAA monitoring and screening through wearable devices which can reliably measure pressure or flow-rates.
Virtual patients; Stenosis; Aneurysm; Pulse wave haemodynamics; Screening; Machine learning
College of Engineering
This work is supported by an EPSRC studentship ref. EP/N509553/1 and an EPSRC grant ref. EP/R010811/1.