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Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties

Manoj Kumar, Gregory J. Gibbons, Amit Das Orcid Logo, Indranil Manna, David Tanner, Hiren R. Kotadia

Rapid Prototyping Journal, Volume: 27, Issue: 7, Pages: 1388 - 1397

Swansea University Author: Amit Das Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the microstructural evolution of high-strength 2024 Al alloy prepared by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) route. The high-strength wrought Al alloy has typically been unsuitable for AM due to its particular solidifi...

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Published in: Rapid Prototyping Journal
ISSN: 1355-2546
Published: Emerald 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa57412
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spelling 2021-08-19T17:23:10.1014646 v2 57412 2021-07-17 Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties 4d785df766daed9a857c934bb130ed8b 0000-0002-7196-6254 Amit Das Amit Das true false 2021-07-17 MTLS Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the microstructural evolution of high-strength 2024 Al alloy prepared by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) route. The high-strength wrought Al alloy has typically been unsuitable for AM due to its particular solidification characteristics such as hot cracking, porosity and columnar grain growth.Design/methodology/approach – In this research work, samples were fabricated using L-PBF under various laser energy densities by varying laser power and scan speed. The microstructural features that developed during the solidification are correlated with operating laser parameters. In addition, finite element modelling (FEM) was performed to understand the experimentally observed results.Findings – Microstructure evolution and defect formation have been assessed, quantified and correlated with operating laser parameters. Thermal behaviour of samples was predicted using FEM to support experimental observations. An optimised combination of intermediate laser power and scan speed produced the least defects. Higher energy density increased hot tearing along the columnar grain boundaries, while lower energy density promoted void formation. From the quantitative results, it is evident that with increasing energy density, both the top surface and side wall roughness initially reduced till a minimum and then increased. Hardness and compressive strength were found to decrease with increasing power density due to stress relaxation from hot tearing.Originality/value – This research work examined how L-PBF processing conditions influence the microstructure, defects, surface roughness andmechanical properties. The results indicates that complete elimination of solidification cracks can be only achieved by combining processoptimisation and possible grain refining strategies. Journal Article Rapid Prototyping Journal 27 7 1388 1397 Emerald 1355-2546 3 8 2021 2021-08-03 10.1108/rpj-10-2020-0241 COLLEGE NANME Materials Science and Engineering COLLEGE CODE MTLS Swansea University 2021-08-19T17:23:10.1014646 2021-07-17T00:54:09.8104134 College of Engineering Engineering Manoj Kumar 1 Gregory J. Gibbons 2 Amit Das 0000-0002-7196-6254 3 Indranil Manna 4 David Tanner 5 Hiren R. Kotadia 6 57412__20419__1d3c891f17f642ff97663acecfba8165.pdf PDF_Proof.pdf 2021-07-17T01:08:13.1800253 Output 6062419 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true Released under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial International Licence 4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0) true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
title Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
spellingShingle Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
Amit Das
title_short Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
title_full Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
title_fullStr Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
title_full_unstemmed Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
title_sort Additive manufacturing of aluminium alloy 2024 by laser powder bed fusion: microstructural evolution, defects and mechanical properties
author_id_str_mv 4d785df766daed9a857c934bb130ed8b
author_id_fullname_str_mv 4d785df766daed9a857c934bb130ed8b_***_Amit Das
author Amit Das
author2 Manoj Kumar
Gregory J. Gibbons
Amit Das
Indranil Manna
David Tanner
Hiren R. Kotadia
format Journal article
container_title Rapid Prototyping Journal
container_volume 27
container_issue 7
container_start_page 1388
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 1355-2546
doi_str_mv 10.1108/rpj-10-2020-0241
publisher Emerald
college_str College of Engineering
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the microstructural evolution of high-strength 2024 Al alloy prepared by the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) route. The high-strength wrought Al alloy has typically been unsuitable for AM due to its particular solidification characteristics such as hot cracking, porosity and columnar grain growth.Design/methodology/approach – In this research work, samples were fabricated using L-PBF under various laser energy densities by varying laser power and scan speed. The microstructural features that developed during the solidification are correlated with operating laser parameters. In addition, finite element modelling (FEM) was performed to understand the experimentally observed results.Findings – Microstructure evolution and defect formation have been assessed, quantified and correlated with operating laser parameters. Thermal behaviour of samples was predicted using FEM to support experimental observations. An optimised combination of intermediate laser power and scan speed produced the least defects. Higher energy density increased hot tearing along the columnar grain boundaries, while lower energy density promoted void formation. From the quantitative results, it is evident that with increasing energy density, both the top surface and side wall roughness initially reduced till a minimum and then increased. Hardness and compressive strength were found to decrease with increasing power density due to stress relaxation from hot tearing.Originality/value – This research work examined how L-PBF processing conditions influence the microstructure, defects, surface roughness andmechanical properties. The results indicates that complete elimination of solidification cracks can be only achieved by combining processoptimisation and possible grain refining strategies.
published_date 2021-08-03T04:13:05Z
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