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Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales / SARA CORREIA

Swansea University Author: SARA CORREIA

  • E-Thesis – open access under embargo until: 30th September 2024

DOI (Published version): 10.23889/SUthesis.58168

Abstract

While the estimated volume and cost of fraud and computer misuse (F&CM) is astoundingly high, much remains unknown about patterns of victimisation, especially in relation to repeat, ‘chronic’ and/or ‘vulnerable’ victims. These ‘unknowns’ have both theoretical and practical implications. Theoreti...

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Published: Swansea 2021
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: Ph.D
Supervisor: Macdonald, Stuart ; Lorenzo-Dus, Nuria
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa58168
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first_indexed 2021-10-01T16:17:54Z
last_indexed 2021-10-02T03:22:10Z
id cronfa58168
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spelling 2021-10-01T17:41:51.2155572 v2 58168 2021-10-01 Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales 275afe8e0e95ea06c6c2490202d9facb SARA CORREIA SARA CORREIA true false 2021-10-01 While the estimated volume and cost of fraud and computer misuse (F&CM) is astoundingly high, much remains unknown about patterns of victimisation, especially in relation to repeat, ‘chronic’ and/or ‘vulnerable’ victims. These ‘unknowns’ have both theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, understandings of repeat victimisation (RV) and vulnerability remain under-developed and under-studied, particularly with respect to F&CM victims. In practice, the ways in which victim vulnerability is defined and assessed have a direct impact on what response victims of F&CM get from the Criminal Justice System. Too often, however, such policies appear to reproduce idealised notions of ‘the victim’ or assumptions of what kinds of victims and vulnerability ought to be recognised – rather than being driven by evidence.This work is a study of F&CM victimisation. It draws on a sample of crime reports (n = 17,049), made within Wales to the UK’s National Fraud and Cybercrime Reporting Centre Action Fraud, between October 1st 2014 and September 30th 2016. A mixed-methods approach is used, encompassing descriptive and bivariate statistics, generalised linear models, deterministic and probabilistic data linkage, as well as qualitative thematic analysis. Throughout, the socially constructed nature of crime categories and the concepts of ‘the victim’ and vulnerability are recognised, while remaining committed to empirically grounded discussion of findings and (where applicable) the replicability of the analysis.The analysis in this thesis highlights flaws in the reporting system that negatively impact on analysis and police response. These include data quality issues and the lack of a robust system to identify vulnerable and repeat victims. It also demonstrates the unsustainability of an online/offline distinction with respect to recorded F&CM crimes, identifies patterns of RV and their implications for crime prevention. Finally, this thesis advances an original framework for understanding vulnerability in the context of F&CM victimisation and better target a victim response. E-Thesis Swansea Cybercrime, fraud, victims, vulnerability, online crime, victomology 1 10 2021 2021-10-01 10.23889/SUthesis.58168 ORCiD identifier https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0261-6872 COLLEGE NANME COLLEGE CODE Swansea University Macdonald, Stuart ; Lorenzo-Dus, Nuria Doctoral Ph.D Economic and Social Research Council, grant number 1732687 2021-10-01T17:41:51.2155572 2021-10-01T17:10:05.8538977 Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law Criminology SARA CORREIA 1 Under embargo Under embargo 2021-10-01T17:28:18.0868877 Output 7574377 application/pdf E-Thesis – open access true 2024-09-30T00:00:00.0000000 Copyright: The author, Sara Giro Correia, 2021. true eng
title Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
spellingShingle Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
SARA CORREIA
title_short Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
title_full Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
title_fullStr Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
title_full_unstemmed Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
title_sort Vulnerability and Repeat Victimisation in a Digital World: A Study of Computer Misuse and Fraud Reported in Wales
author_id_str_mv 275afe8e0e95ea06c6c2490202d9facb
author_id_fullname_str_mv 275afe8e0e95ea06c6c2490202d9facb_***_SARA CORREIA
author SARA CORREIA
author2 SARA CORREIA
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doi_str_mv 10.23889/SUthesis.58168
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hierarchy_top_title Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law
hierarchy_parent_id hillaryrodhamclintonschooloflaw
hierarchy_parent_title Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law
department_str Criminology{{{_:::_}}}Hillary Rodham Clinton School of Law{{{_:::_}}}Criminology
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description While the estimated volume and cost of fraud and computer misuse (F&CM) is astoundingly high, much remains unknown about patterns of victimisation, especially in relation to repeat, ‘chronic’ and/or ‘vulnerable’ victims. These ‘unknowns’ have both theoretical and practical implications. Theoretically, understandings of repeat victimisation (RV) and vulnerability remain under-developed and under-studied, particularly with respect to F&CM victims. In practice, the ways in which victim vulnerability is defined and assessed have a direct impact on what response victims of F&CM get from the Criminal Justice System. Too often, however, such policies appear to reproduce idealised notions of ‘the victim’ or assumptions of what kinds of victims and vulnerability ought to be recognised – rather than being driven by evidence.This work is a study of F&CM victimisation. It draws on a sample of crime reports (n = 17,049), made within Wales to the UK’s National Fraud and Cybercrime Reporting Centre Action Fraud, between October 1st 2014 and September 30th 2016. A mixed-methods approach is used, encompassing descriptive and bivariate statistics, generalised linear models, deterministic and probabilistic data linkage, as well as qualitative thematic analysis. Throughout, the socially constructed nature of crime categories and the concepts of ‘the victim’ and vulnerability are recognised, while remaining committed to empirically grounded discussion of findings and (where applicable) the replicability of the analysis.The analysis in this thesis highlights flaws in the reporting system that negatively impact on analysis and police response. These include data quality issues and the lack of a robust system to identify vulnerable and repeat victims. It also demonstrates the unsustainability of an online/offline distinction with respect to recorded F&CM crimes, identifies patterns of RV and their implications for crime prevention. Finally, this thesis advances an original framework for understanding vulnerability in the context of F&CM victimisation and better target a victim response.
published_date 2021-10-01T04:14:42Z
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