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Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis

Alison Cooper, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Matthew Cooke, Peter Hibbert, Thomas Hughes, Faris Hussain, Aloysius Siriwardena, Helen Snooks Orcid Logo, Liam J. Donaldson, Adrian Edwards

BMC Emergency Medicine, Volume: 21, Issue: 1, Start page: 139

Swansea University Author: Helen Snooks Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Background: Increasing demand on emergency healthcare systems has prompted introduction of new healthcare service models including the provision of GP services in or alongside emergency departments. In England this led to a policy proposal and £100million (US$130million) of funding for all emergency...

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Published in: BMC Emergency Medicine
ISSN: 1471-227X
Published: Springer Science and Business Media LLC 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa58731
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In England this led to a policy proposal and &#xA3;100million (US$130million) of funding for all emergency departments to have co-located GP services. However, there is a lack of evidence for whether such service models are effective and safe. We examined diagnostic errors reported in patient safety incident reports to develop theories to explain how and why they occurred to inform potential priority areas for improvement and inform qualitative data collection at case study sites to further refine the theories. Methods: We used a mixed-methods design using exploratory descriptive analysis to identify the most frequent and harmful sources of diagnostic error and thematic analysis, incorporating realist methodology to refine theories from an earlier rapid realist review, to describe how and why the events occurred and could be mitigated, to inform improvement recommendations. We used two UK data sources: Coroners&#x2019; reports to prevent future deaths (30.7.13&#x2013;14.08.18) and National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) patient safety incident reports (03.01.05&#x2013;30.11.15). Results: Nine Coroners&#x2019; reports (from 1347 community and hospital reports, 2013&#x2013;2018) and 217 NRLS reports (from 13 million, 2005&#x2013;2015) were identified describing diagnostic error related to GP services in or alongside emergency departments. Initial theories to describe potential priority areas for improvement included: difficulty identifying appropriate patients for the GP service; under-investigation and misinterpretation of diagnostic tests; and inadequate communication and referral pathways between the emergency and GP services. High-risk presentations included: musculoskeletal injury, chest pain, headache, calf pain and sick children. Conclusion: Initial theories include the following topics as potential priority areas for improvement interventions and evaluation to minimise the risk of diagnostic errors when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: a standardised initial assessment with streaming guidance based on local service provision; clinical decision support for high-risk conditions; and standardised computer systems, communication and referral pathways between emergency and GP services. 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spelling 2021-12-07T10:18:43.7204399 v2 58731 2021-11-22 Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis ab23c5e0111b88427a155a1f495861d9 0000-0003-0173-8843 Helen Snooks Helen Snooks true false 2021-11-22 HDAT Background: Increasing demand on emergency healthcare systems has prompted introduction of new healthcare service models including the provision of GP services in or alongside emergency departments. In England this led to a policy proposal and £100million (US$130million) of funding for all emergency departments to have co-located GP services. However, there is a lack of evidence for whether such service models are effective and safe. We examined diagnostic errors reported in patient safety incident reports to develop theories to explain how and why they occurred to inform potential priority areas for improvement and inform qualitative data collection at case study sites to further refine the theories. Methods: We used a mixed-methods design using exploratory descriptive analysis to identify the most frequent and harmful sources of diagnostic error and thematic analysis, incorporating realist methodology to refine theories from an earlier rapid realist review, to describe how and why the events occurred and could be mitigated, to inform improvement recommendations. We used two UK data sources: Coroners’ reports to prevent future deaths (30.7.13–14.08.18) and National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) patient safety incident reports (03.01.05–30.11.15). Results: Nine Coroners’ reports (from 1347 community and hospital reports, 2013–2018) and 217 NRLS reports (from 13 million, 2005–2015) were identified describing diagnostic error related to GP services in or alongside emergency departments. Initial theories to describe potential priority areas for improvement included: difficulty identifying appropriate patients for the GP service; under-investigation and misinterpretation of diagnostic tests; and inadequate communication and referral pathways between the emergency and GP services. High-risk presentations included: musculoskeletal injury, chest pain, headache, calf pain and sick children. Conclusion: Initial theories include the following topics as potential priority areas for improvement interventions and evaluation to minimise the risk of diagnostic errors when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: a standardised initial assessment with streaming guidance based on local service provision; clinical decision support for high-risk conditions; and standardised computer systems, communication and referral pathways between emergency and GP services. These theories require refinement and testing with qualitative data collection from case study (hospital) sites. Journal Article BMC Emergency Medicine 21 1 139 Springer Science and Business Media LLC 1471-227X Patient safety, Diagnostic error, General practitioners, Emergency department 18 11 2021 2021-11-18 10.1186/s12873-021-00537-w COLLEGE NANME Health Data Science COLLEGE CODE HDAT Swansea University National Institute for Health Research HS&DR Project 15/145/04 2021-12-07T10:18:43.7204399 2021-11-22T10:47:47.2281692 Swansea University Medical School Medicine Alison Cooper 1 Andrew Carson-Stevens 2 Matthew Cooke 3 Peter Hibbert 4 Thomas Hughes 5 Faris Hussain 6 Aloysius Siriwardena 7 Helen Snooks 0000-0003-0173-8843 8 Liam J. Donaldson 9 Adrian Edwards 10 58731__21618__5c82d87b9ff54c5c9959786adb9a44d7.pdf 12873_2021_Article_537.pdf 2021-11-22T10:47:47.2280858 Output 1802127 application/pdf Version of Record true This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
spellingShingle Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
Helen Snooks
title_short Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
title_full Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
title_fullStr Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
title_full_unstemmed Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
title_sort Learning from diagnostic errors to improve patient safety when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: incorporating realist methodology into patient safety incident report analysis
author_id_str_mv ab23c5e0111b88427a155a1f495861d9
author_id_fullname_str_mv ab23c5e0111b88427a155a1f495861d9_***_Helen Snooks
author Helen Snooks
author2 Alison Cooper
Andrew Carson-Stevens
Matthew Cooke
Peter Hibbert
Thomas Hughes
Faris Hussain
Aloysius Siriwardena
Helen Snooks
Liam J. Donaldson
Adrian Edwards
format Journal article
container_title BMC Emergency Medicine
container_volume 21
container_issue 1
container_start_page 139
publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
issn 1471-227X
doi_str_mv 10.1186/s12873-021-00537-w
publisher Springer Science and Business Media LLC
college_str Swansea University Medical School
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hierarchy_top_id swanseauniversitymedicalschool
hierarchy_top_title Swansea University Medical School
hierarchy_parent_id swanseauniversitymedicalschool
hierarchy_parent_title Swansea University Medical School
department_str Medicine{{{_:::_}}}Swansea University Medical School{{{_:::_}}}Medicine
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description Background: Increasing demand on emergency healthcare systems has prompted introduction of new healthcare service models including the provision of GP services in or alongside emergency departments. In England this led to a policy proposal and £100million (US$130million) of funding for all emergency departments to have co-located GP services. However, there is a lack of evidence for whether such service models are effective and safe. We examined diagnostic errors reported in patient safety incident reports to develop theories to explain how and why they occurred to inform potential priority areas for improvement and inform qualitative data collection at case study sites to further refine the theories. Methods: We used a mixed-methods design using exploratory descriptive analysis to identify the most frequent and harmful sources of diagnostic error and thematic analysis, incorporating realist methodology to refine theories from an earlier rapid realist review, to describe how and why the events occurred and could be mitigated, to inform improvement recommendations. We used two UK data sources: Coroners’ reports to prevent future deaths (30.7.13–14.08.18) and National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) patient safety incident reports (03.01.05–30.11.15). Results: Nine Coroners’ reports (from 1347 community and hospital reports, 2013–2018) and 217 NRLS reports (from 13 million, 2005–2015) were identified describing diagnostic error related to GP services in or alongside emergency departments. Initial theories to describe potential priority areas for improvement included: difficulty identifying appropriate patients for the GP service; under-investigation and misinterpretation of diagnostic tests; and inadequate communication and referral pathways between the emergency and GP services. High-risk presentations included: musculoskeletal injury, chest pain, headache, calf pain and sick children. Conclusion: Initial theories include the following topics as potential priority areas for improvement interventions and evaluation to minimise the risk of diagnostic errors when GPs work in or alongside emergency departments: a standardised initial assessment with streaming guidance based on local service provision; clinical decision support for high-risk conditions; and standardised computer systems, communication and referral pathways between emergency and GP services. These theories require refinement and testing with qualitative data collection from case study (hospital) sites.
published_date 2021-11-18T04:15:35Z
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