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The effects of sex and outcome expectancies on perceptions of sexual harassment
PLOS ONE, Volume: 16, Issue: 12, Start page: e0261409
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Using an outcome expectancy framework, this research sought to understand sex differences in the underlying beliefs that influence harassment perception. One hundred and ninety-six participants (52% women) read a series of vignettes depicting common examples of digital male-on-female sexual harassme...
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Using an outcome expectancy framework, this research sought to understand sex differences in the underlying beliefs that influence harassment perception. One hundred and ninety-six participants (52% women) read a series of vignettes depicting common examples of digital male-on-female sexual harassment. They were asked to what extent they thought each scenario constituted sexual harassment, and how likely the perpetrator would experience positive and negative outcomes. Consistent with predictions, women were more likely to consider the behaviours as harassment than men were. Both sexes harassment perceptions had significant relationships with their outcome expectancies, but we also found evidence of a sex specific moderation; the link between men’s negative outcome expectancies was moderated by their positive ones. The results suggest that perceptions of harassment may have sexually asymmetrical underpinnings. Measuring the interplay between positive and negative outcome expectancies in relation to sexual harassment perception is a novel approach, that may have implications for the development of anti-sexual harassment interventions. Implications for theory and future research directions are discussed.
Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
This work was funded collaboratively by the Welsh Government and KESS 2. Knowledge Economy Skills Scholarships (KESS 2) is a pan-Wales higher level skills initiative led by Bangor University on behalf of the HE sector in Wales. It is part funded by the Welsh Government''s European Social Fund (ESF) convergence programme for West Wales and the Valleys (ESF; https://ec.europa.eu/esf/home.jspcatId=45&langId=en). The European Union''s Convergence programme was administered by the Welsh Government (grant code EGR 0817-100 / EGR9818-100, awarded to SL). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There was no additional external funding received for this study.