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Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation / PATRICK RASSEK

Swansea University Author: PATRICK RASSEK

  • Redacted version - open access under embargo until: 9th July 2026

DOI (Published version): 10.23889/SUthesis.58987

Abstract

Fully screen-printed zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn|MnO2) batteries can power printed electronics devices. However, large-scale market implementation of such batteries has been impeded due to complexity in manufacturing and insufficient long-term stability. This work looks at key production parameters o...

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Published: Swansea 2021
Institution: Swansea University
Degree level: Doctoral
Degree name: Ph.D
Supervisor: Claypole, Timothy C. ; Gethin, D.
URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa58987
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2021-12-09T14:11:14.7048222</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>58987</id><entry>2021-12-09</entry><title>Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>f6850058b3e41ff4721d8344a5ef800b</sid><firstname>PATRICK</firstname><surname>RASSEK</surname><name>PATRICK RASSEK</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2021-12-09</date><abstract>Fully screen-printed zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn|MnO2) batteries can power printed electronics devices. However, large-scale market implementation of such batteries has been impeded due to complexity in manufacturing and insufficient long-term stability. This work looks at key production parameters of current collector passivation, calendering of electrodes, electrode spacing and interfacial area and evaluates their effect on battery performance. Many commercially available conductive inks used to screen-print current collectors were developed for other applications and suffer power consuming parasitic side reactions inside electrochemical cells. A practical strategy to avoid corrosion of metallic current collectors adversely affecting battery performance is to print carbon black passivation layers, which is employed in this work. The stability of printed current collectors and passivation layers in common electrolyte solutions has been addressed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments to identify pinhole-related anodic peak currents. Current integration over time enabled quantification and comparison of the passivation capability of individually fabricated protective carbon black layers. Printed layer thicknesses of at least 7 &#xB5;m were required for the avoidance of pinholes in the protective passivation layers. The protective functionality was further enhanced by printing of passivation layer thicknesses of up to 25 &#xB5;m and modification of the printing process to double prints wet-on-dry. Coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries have a lower manufacturing complexity than stack-type batteries but lower interest in coplanar batteries can be attributed to reduced electrical and electrochemical performance due to layout-specific issues. Batteries comprising series connections or smaller gap widths between electrodes are typically printed to overcome these limitations. The focus of this study is the optimisation of battery performance characteristics by process and layout modification while enhancing processability on a wide range of screen printing machines. Thus, coplanar batteries prepared were calendered as part of the systematic electrode post-treatment. Battery layouts were modified by incremental gap width enlargement and a gap length extension. Individual effects of the electrical performance were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and discharge experiments. Calendering of zinc anodes reduced charge transfer resistances of the batteries. Gap width extensions in a range between 1 mm and 5 mm showed only marginal impact on discharge performance metrics. Increase of the electrode interfacial area resulted in an improved current capability, raised short circuit currents by 45 %, and enhanced the durability against mechanical stress and thermal intake during battery activation and encapsulation. This work contributes to the optimisation of fully screen-printed coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries by a predictable stability of passivation layers and an improved battery performance by Zn electrode calendering. Reduced requirements on registration due to increased electrode spacing and an enhanced process stability during encapsulation enable production of printed batteries at industrial-scale.</abstract><type>E-Thesis</type><journal/><volume/><journalNumber/><paginationStart/><paginationEnd/><publisher/><placeOfPublication>Swansea</placeOfPublication><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint/><issnElectronic/><keywords>Printed flexible batteries, Battery performance, Zinc&#x2013;manganese dioxide, Electrode geometry, Electrode processing, Material performance, Current collectors, Electrochemistry, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy</keywords><publishedDay>9</publishedDay><publishedMonth>12</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-12-09</publishedDate><doi>10.23889/SUthesis.58987</doi><url/><notes>A selection of third party content is redacted or is partially redacted from this thesis due to copyright restrictions.ORCiD identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-7644</notes><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><supervisor>Claypole, Timothy C. ; Gethin, D.</supervisor><degreelevel>Doctoral</degreelevel><degreename>Ph.D</degreename><degreesponsorsfunders>VARTA Microbattery GmbH (Ellwangen, Germany)</degreesponsorsfunders><apcterm/><lastEdited>2021-12-09T14:11:14.7048222</lastEdited><Created>2021-12-09T13:46:25.3239973</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Engineering</level></path><authors><author><firstname>PATRICK</firstname><surname>RASSEK</surname><order>1</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>Under embargo</filename><originalFilename>Under embargo</originalFilename><uploaded>2021-12-09T14:01:55.2776049</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>11249171</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Redacted version - open access</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><embargoDate>2026-07-09T00:00:00.0000000</embargoDate><documentNotes>Copyright: The author, Patrick L. 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spelling 2021-12-09T14:11:14.7048222 v2 58987 2021-12-09 Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation f6850058b3e41ff4721d8344a5ef800b PATRICK RASSEK PATRICK RASSEK true false 2021-12-09 Fully screen-printed zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn|MnO2) batteries can power printed electronics devices. However, large-scale market implementation of such batteries has been impeded due to complexity in manufacturing and insufficient long-term stability. This work looks at key production parameters of current collector passivation, calendering of electrodes, electrode spacing and interfacial area and evaluates their effect on battery performance. Many commercially available conductive inks used to screen-print current collectors were developed for other applications and suffer power consuming parasitic side reactions inside electrochemical cells. A practical strategy to avoid corrosion of metallic current collectors adversely affecting battery performance is to print carbon black passivation layers, which is employed in this work. The stability of printed current collectors and passivation layers in common electrolyte solutions has been addressed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments to identify pinhole-related anodic peak currents. Current integration over time enabled quantification and comparison of the passivation capability of individually fabricated protective carbon black layers. Printed layer thicknesses of at least 7 µm were required for the avoidance of pinholes in the protective passivation layers. The protective functionality was further enhanced by printing of passivation layer thicknesses of up to 25 µm and modification of the printing process to double prints wet-on-dry. Coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries have a lower manufacturing complexity than stack-type batteries but lower interest in coplanar batteries can be attributed to reduced electrical and electrochemical performance due to layout-specific issues. Batteries comprising series connections or smaller gap widths between electrodes are typically printed to overcome these limitations. The focus of this study is the optimisation of battery performance characteristics by process and layout modification while enhancing processability on a wide range of screen printing machines. Thus, coplanar batteries prepared were calendered as part of the systematic electrode post-treatment. Battery layouts were modified by incremental gap width enlargement and a gap length extension. Individual effects of the electrical performance were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and discharge experiments. Calendering of zinc anodes reduced charge transfer resistances of the batteries. Gap width extensions in a range between 1 mm and 5 mm showed only marginal impact on discharge performance metrics. Increase of the electrode interfacial area resulted in an improved current capability, raised short circuit currents by 45 %, and enhanced the durability against mechanical stress and thermal intake during battery activation and encapsulation. This work contributes to the optimisation of fully screen-printed coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries by a predictable stability of passivation layers and an improved battery performance by Zn electrode calendering. Reduced requirements on registration due to increased electrode spacing and an enhanced process stability during encapsulation enable production of printed batteries at industrial-scale. E-Thesis Swansea Printed flexible batteries, Battery performance, Zinc–manganese dioxide, Electrode geometry, Electrode processing, Material performance, Current collectors, Electrochemistry, Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy 9 12 2021 2021-12-09 10.23889/SUthesis.58987 A selection of third party content is redacted or is partially redacted from this thesis due to copyright restrictions.ORCiD identifier: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0694-7644 COLLEGE NANME COLLEGE CODE Swansea University Claypole, Timothy C. ; Gethin, D. Doctoral Ph.D VARTA Microbattery GmbH (Ellwangen, Germany) 2021-12-09T14:11:14.7048222 2021-12-09T13:46:25.3239973 College of Engineering Engineering PATRICK RASSEK 1 Under embargo Under embargo 2021-12-09T14:01:55.2776049 Output 11249171 application/pdf Redacted version - open access true 2026-07-09T00:00:00.0000000 Copyright: The author, Patrick L. Rassek, 2021. true eng
title Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
spellingShingle Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
PATRICK RASSEK
title_short Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
title_full Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
title_fullStr Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
title_full_unstemmed Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
title_sort Printed Coplanar Batteries: Materials, Processing and Parametrisation
author_id_str_mv f6850058b3e41ff4721d8344a5ef800b
author_id_fullname_str_mv f6850058b3e41ff4721d8344a5ef800b_***_PATRICK RASSEK
author PATRICK RASSEK
author2 PATRICK RASSEK
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publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
doi_str_mv 10.23889/SUthesis.58987
college_str College of Engineering
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hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofengineering
hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Engineering{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Engineering
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description Fully screen-printed zinc-manganese dioxide (Zn|MnO2) batteries can power printed electronics devices. However, large-scale market implementation of such batteries has been impeded due to complexity in manufacturing and insufficient long-term stability. This work looks at key production parameters of current collector passivation, calendering of electrodes, electrode spacing and interfacial area and evaluates their effect on battery performance. Many commercially available conductive inks used to screen-print current collectors were developed for other applications and suffer power consuming parasitic side reactions inside electrochemical cells. A practical strategy to avoid corrosion of metallic current collectors adversely affecting battery performance is to print carbon black passivation layers, which is employed in this work. The stability of printed current collectors and passivation layers in common electrolyte solutions has been addressed using cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments to identify pinhole-related anodic peak currents. Current integration over time enabled quantification and comparison of the passivation capability of individually fabricated protective carbon black layers. Printed layer thicknesses of at least 7 µm were required for the avoidance of pinholes in the protective passivation layers. The protective functionality was further enhanced by printing of passivation layer thicknesses of up to 25 µm and modification of the printing process to double prints wet-on-dry. Coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries have a lower manufacturing complexity than stack-type batteries but lower interest in coplanar batteries can be attributed to reduced electrical and electrochemical performance due to layout-specific issues. Batteries comprising series connections or smaller gap widths between electrodes are typically printed to overcome these limitations. The focus of this study is the optimisation of battery performance characteristics by process and layout modification while enhancing processability on a wide range of screen printing machines. Thus, coplanar batteries prepared were calendered as part of the systematic electrode post-treatment. Battery layouts were modified by incremental gap width enlargement and a gap length extension. Individual effects of the electrical performance were monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and discharge experiments. Calendering of zinc anodes reduced charge transfer resistances of the batteries. Gap width extensions in a range between 1 mm and 5 mm showed only marginal impact on discharge performance metrics. Increase of the electrode interfacial area resulted in an improved current capability, raised short circuit currents by 45 %, and enhanced the durability against mechanical stress and thermal intake during battery activation and encapsulation. This work contributes to the optimisation of fully screen-printed coplanar Zn|MnO2 batteries by a predictable stability of passivation layers and an improved battery performance by Zn electrode calendering. Reduced requirements on registration due to increased electrode spacing and an enhanced process stability during encapsulation enable production of printed batteries at industrial-scale.
published_date 2021-12-09T04:15:59Z
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score 10.917908