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Ecological generalism drives hyperdiversity of secondary metabolite gene clusters in xylarialean endophytes
New Phytologist, Volume: 233, Issue: 3, Pages: 1317 - 1330
Swansea University Author: Dan Eastwood
Accepted Manuscript under embargo until: 19th November 2022
Supplemental material under embargo until: 19th November 2022
Although secondary metabolites are typically associated with competitive or pathogenic interactions, the high bioactivity of endophytic fungi in the Xylariales, coupled with their abundance and broad host ranges spanning all lineages of land plants and lichens, suggests that enhanced secondary metab...
|Published in:||New Phytologist|
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Although secondary metabolites are typically associated with competitive or pathogenic interactions, the high bioactivity of endophytic fungi in the Xylariales, coupled with their abundance and broad host ranges spanning all lineages of land plants and lichens, suggests that enhanced secondary metabolism might facilitate symbioses with phylogenetically diverse hosts. Here, we examined secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) across 96 Xylariales genomes in two clades (Xylariaceae s.l. and Hypoxylaceae), including 88 newly sequenced genomes of endophytes and closely related saprotrophs and pathogens. We paired genomic data with extensive metadata on endophyte hosts and substrates, enabling us to examine genomic factors related to substrate the breadth of symbiotic interactions and ecological roles. All genomes contain hyperabundant SMGCs; however, Xylariaceae have increased numbers of gene duplications, horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) and SMGCs. Enhanced metabolic diversity of endophytes is associated with a greater diversity of hosts and increased capacity for lignocellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that, as host and substrate generalists, Xylariaceae endophytes experience greater selection to diversify SMGCs compared with more ecologically specialised Hypoxylaceae species. Overall, our results provide new evidence that SMGCs may facilitate symbiosis with phylogenetically diverse hosts, highlighting the importance of microbial symbioses to drive fungal metabolic diversity.
Ascomycota; endophyte; plant–fungal interactions; saprotroph; specialised metabolism; symbiosis; trophic mode; Xylariales
College of Science