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COVER: A Secure Blind Image Watermarking Scheme
Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing, Volume: 41, Issue: 12, Pages: 6931 - 6959
Swansea University Author: Scott Yang
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The robustness and imperceptibility of the watermarking algorithm are a pair of contradictory properties. When the robustness increases, the imperceptibility decreases. Most strategies proposed in the literature usually concentrate on improving robustness, but few consider the relationship between r...
|Published in:||Circuits, Systems, and Signal Processing|
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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The robustness and imperceptibility of the watermarking algorithm are a pair of contradictory properties. When the robustness increases, the imperceptibility decreases. Most strategies proposed in the literature usually concentrate on improving robustness, but few consider the relationship between robustness and imperceptibility. To deal with this problem, a robust blind image watermarking method is proposed in this work, which is composed of a logistic-sine-COupling map, discrete waVElet transform, and appRoximate maximum eigenvalue of Schur decomposition, namely COVER. In the proposed COVER, an objective function and a two-stage search method are designed to determine the optimal embedding coefficient, thus balancing the imperceptibility and robustness of this work. Specifically, the host image is transformed into four sub-bands by discrete wavelet transform, and the low-low sub-band is further separated into non-overlapping blocks which can be calculated to get the approximate maximum eigenvalues (AMEs) of Schur decomposition. Especially, each AME is not contained in the real Schur decomposition, which effectively reduces the computational complexity. Then, the original AMEs of the host image are updated to complete the embedding process according to the binary feature of encrypted watermark and the proposed embedding method. Finally, the watermarked image is obtained. The experimental results show that all peak signal noise ratio values are above 42 dB, structural similarity index measure values are above 0.98, normalized correlation values are above 0.9, and all bit errors rates are less than 0.14. Compared with six state-of-the-art schemes, the proposed COVER has strong robustness, good imperceptibility, large capacity, and low computational complexity.
Image watermarking; DWT; Approximate maximum eigenvalue; Objective function
Faculty of Science and Engineering
This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61801131 and the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation under Grant 2022GXNSFAA035632.