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A Pleistocene legacy structures variation in modern seagrass ecosystems
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume: 119, Issue: 32
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Distribution of Earth’s biomes is structured by the match between climate and plant traits, which in turn shape associated communities and ecosystem processes and services. However, that climate–trait match can be disrupted by historical events, with lasting ecosystem impacts. As Earth’s environment...
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Distribution of Earth’s biomes is structured by the match between climate and plant traits, which in turn shape associated communities and ecosystem processes and services. However, that climate–trait match can be disrupted by historical events, with lasting ecosystem impacts. As Earth’s environment changes faster than at any time in human history, critical questions are whether and how organismal traits and ecosystems can adjust to altered conditions. We quantified the relative importance of current environmental forcing versus evolutionary history in shaping the growth form (stature and biomass) and associated community of eelgrass (Zostera marina), a widespread foundation plant of marine ecosystems along Northern Hemisphere coastlines, which experienced major shifts in distribution and genetic composition during the Pleistocene. We found that eelgrass stature and biomass retain a legacy of the Pleistocene colonization of the Atlantic from the ancestral Pacific range and of more recent within-basin bottlenecks and genetic differentiation. This evolutionary legacy in turn influences the biomass of associated algae and invertebrates that fuel coastal food webs, with effects comparable to or stronger than effects of current environmental forcing. Such historical lags in phenotypic acclimatization may constrain ecosystem adjustments to rapid anthropogenic climate change, thus altering predictions about the future functioning of ecosystems.
Data Availability:All data used in the analyses, and associated R code, are available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6808753(64), with the exception ofthe genetic data, available at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3660013(65).
Faculty of Science and Engineering
This work was supported by the US NSF (OCE-1031061, OCE-1336206, OCE0-1336741, OCE-1336905) and the Smithsonian Institution. J.L.O. thanks Jan Veldsink for DNA extractions and microsatellite gen-otyping. F.T. was supported by Jose Castillejo Award CAS14/00177. A.H.E. was supported by the FCT (Foundation for Science and Technology) through ProjectUIDB/04326/2020 and Contract CEECINST/00114/2018.