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The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion

Iwan Grech, James Sullivan Orcid Logo, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, J. Plummer, Nicholas Lavery Orcid Logo

Additive Manufacturing, Volume: 58, Start page: 103072

Swansea University Authors: Iwan Grech, James Sullivan Orcid Logo, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, Nicholas Lavery Orcid Logo

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Abstract

This work compares the mechanical and corrosion properties of 316L steel manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) and post treated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) to wrought 316L. HIP is often used by default on LPBF components to reduce porosity and obtain the best mechanical properties, howe...

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Published in: Additive Manufacturing
ISSN: 2214-8604
Published: Elsevier BV 2022
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa60813
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HIP is often used by default on LPBF components to reduce porosity and obtain the best mechanical properties, however, if the HIP temperatures are too high, there is a risk of reducing mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the HIP parameters and understand the trade-off in properties. By choosing various HIP temperatures (700 &#xB0;C, 1125 &#xB0;C, 1200 &#xB0;C), pressures (100 MPa, 137 MPa and 200 MPa) and hold times, optimal cycles were investigated based on the most favourable mechanical properties (density, hardness, tensile and low-cycle fatigue), and pitting corrosion resistance.Microstructural features associated with LPBF such as melt pools, melt pool boundaries and sub granular cells were observed. These features were found to disappear with longer and higher temperature treatments, accompanied by increased grain sizes. Low and mid temperature point HIP treatments resulted in higher ultimate tensile strength but lower fracture elongation. The decreasing hardness and tensile strength trends were consistent with decreased grain boundary strengthening and decreased dislocation strengthening (with disappearing sub grain boundary and granular cells). Only one HIP condition, consisting of a low temperature and medium pressure, produced samples that achieved runout under low cycle fatigue testing for both the lower and higher stresses. Despite this, most higher temperature HIP cycles reduced the fatigue resistance. This was again attributed to the coarsening of the microstructure at the higher temperature treatments.The spread of the pitting potentials of HIP treated samples was reduced by 52.46 % compared to the as-built material, although none were better overall compared to the wrought material. 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spelling 2022-09-07T14:32:13.5101606 v2 60813 2022-08-15 The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion 0ecb76fcdec2b7950f36c8ec57d00aac Iwan Grech Iwan Grech true false 40e32d66748ab74184a31207ab145708 0000-0003-1018-773X James Sullivan James Sullivan true false e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29 0000-0002-1365-6944 Robert Lancaster Robert Lancaster true false 9f102ff59824fd4f7ce3d40144304395 0000-0003-0953-5936 Nicholas Lavery Nicholas Lavery true false 2022-08-15 FGSEN This work compares the mechanical and corrosion properties of 316L steel manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) and post treated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) to wrought 316L. HIP is often used by default on LPBF components to reduce porosity and obtain the best mechanical properties, however, if the HIP temperatures are too high, there is a risk of reducing mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the HIP parameters and understand the trade-off in properties. By choosing various HIP temperatures (700 °C, 1125 °C, 1200 °C), pressures (100 MPa, 137 MPa and 200 MPa) and hold times, optimal cycles were investigated based on the most favourable mechanical properties (density, hardness, tensile and low-cycle fatigue), and pitting corrosion resistance.Microstructural features associated with LPBF such as melt pools, melt pool boundaries and sub granular cells were observed. These features were found to disappear with longer and higher temperature treatments, accompanied by increased grain sizes. Low and mid temperature point HIP treatments resulted in higher ultimate tensile strength but lower fracture elongation. The decreasing hardness and tensile strength trends were consistent with decreased grain boundary strengthening and decreased dislocation strengthening (with disappearing sub grain boundary and granular cells). Only one HIP condition, consisting of a low temperature and medium pressure, produced samples that achieved runout under low cycle fatigue testing for both the lower and higher stresses. Despite this, most higher temperature HIP cycles reduced the fatigue resistance. This was again attributed to the coarsening of the microstructure at the higher temperature treatments.The spread of the pitting potentials of HIP treated samples was reduced by 52.46 % compared to the as-built material, although none were better overall compared to the wrought material. Of all the properties, porosity appears to play the most influential role on pitting corrosion, and to this extent, despite having a larger variation in results, some of the treated parts demonstrated improved pitting resistance and some demonstrated improved repassivation potentials compared to wrought 316L. Journal Article Additive Manufacturing 58 103072 Elsevier BV 2214-8604 Laser powder bed fusion, Stainless steel 316L, Hot isostatic pressing, Mechanical properties, Corrosion 1 10 2022 2022-10-01 10.1016/j.addma.2022.103072 COLLEGE NANME Science and Engineering - Faculty COLLEGE CODE FGSEN Swansea University SU Library paid the OA fee (TA Institutional Deal) This work was funded by the Defence Science and Technology Lab (DSTL) Project code: DSTLX1000128518. 2022-09-07T14:32:13.5101606 2022-08-15T11:48:28.4448633 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering Iwan Grech 1 James Sullivan 0000-0003-1018-773X 2 Robert Lancaster 0000-0002-1365-6944 3 J. Plummer 4 Nicholas Lavery 0000-0003-0953-5936 5 60813__24994__3fd8bbedb8fb4cd1816148642c1c307d.pdf 60813_VoR.pdf 2022-08-23T13:52:27.1048985 Output 8689845 application/pdf Version of Record true © 2022 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license true eng http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
title The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
spellingShingle The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
Iwan Grech
James Sullivan
Robert Lancaster
Nicholas Lavery
title_short The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
title_full The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
title_fullStr The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
title_full_unstemmed The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
title_sort The optimisation of hot isostatic pressing treatments for enhanced mechanical and corrosion performance of stainless steel 316L produced by laser powder bed fusion
author_id_str_mv 0ecb76fcdec2b7950f36c8ec57d00aac
40e32d66748ab74184a31207ab145708
e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29
9f102ff59824fd4f7ce3d40144304395
author_id_fullname_str_mv 0ecb76fcdec2b7950f36c8ec57d00aac_***_Iwan Grech
40e32d66748ab74184a31207ab145708_***_James Sullivan
e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29_***_Robert Lancaster
9f102ff59824fd4f7ce3d40144304395_***_Nicholas Lavery
author Iwan Grech
James Sullivan
Robert Lancaster
Nicholas Lavery
author2 Iwan Grech
James Sullivan
Robert Lancaster
J. Plummer
Nicholas Lavery
format Journal article
container_title Additive Manufacturing
container_volume 58
container_start_page 103072
publishDate 2022
institution Swansea University
issn 2214-8604
doi_str_mv 10.1016/j.addma.2022.103072
publisher Elsevier BV
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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hierarchy_top_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_top_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
hierarchy_parent_id facultyofscienceandengineering
hierarchy_parent_title Faculty of Science and Engineering
department_str School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Faculty of Science and Engineering{{{_:::_}}}School of Aerospace, Civil, Electrical, General and Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering
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description This work compares the mechanical and corrosion properties of 316L steel manufactured by Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) and post treated by Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) to wrought 316L. HIP is often used by default on LPBF components to reduce porosity and obtain the best mechanical properties, however, if the HIP temperatures are too high, there is a risk of reducing mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. The purpose of this work was to investigate the HIP parameters and understand the trade-off in properties. By choosing various HIP temperatures (700 °C, 1125 °C, 1200 °C), pressures (100 MPa, 137 MPa and 200 MPa) and hold times, optimal cycles were investigated based on the most favourable mechanical properties (density, hardness, tensile and low-cycle fatigue), and pitting corrosion resistance.Microstructural features associated with LPBF such as melt pools, melt pool boundaries and sub granular cells were observed. These features were found to disappear with longer and higher temperature treatments, accompanied by increased grain sizes. Low and mid temperature point HIP treatments resulted in higher ultimate tensile strength but lower fracture elongation. The decreasing hardness and tensile strength trends were consistent with decreased grain boundary strengthening and decreased dislocation strengthening (with disappearing sub grain boundary and granular cells). Only one HIP condition, consisting of a low temperature and medium pressure, produced samples that achieved runout under low cycle fatigue testing for both the lower and higher stresses. Despite this, most higher temperature HIP cycles reduced the fatigue resistance. This was again attributed to the coarsening of the microstructure at the higher temperature treatments.The spread of the pitting potentials of HIP treated samples was reduced by 52.46 % compared to the as-built material, although none were better overall compared to the wrought material. Of all the properties, porosity appears to play the most influential role on pitting corrosion, and to this extent, despite having a larger variation in results, some of the treated parts demonstrated improved pitting resistance and some demonstrated improved repassivation potentials compared to wrought 316L.
published_date 2022-10-01T04:13:49Z
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