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Impact of previous reinforcement on false perceptions for individuals lower and higher in schizotypy traits

Phil Reed Orcid Logo

Personality and Individual Differences, Volume: 200, Start page: 111898

Swansea University Author: Phil Reed Orcid Logo

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Abstract

Psychotic-like experiences (hallucinations) were investigated in a non-clinical population in a word-recognition experiment. The current study explored the effect of perceived importance (previous reinforcement), and whether this differs in its impact on individuals with lower or higher schizotypy....

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Published in: Personality and Individual Differences
ISSN: 0191-8869
Published: Elsevier BV 2023
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa61161
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Abstract: Psychotic-like experiences (hallucinations) were investigated in a non-clinical population in a word-recognition experiment. The current study explored the effect of perceived importance (previous reinforcement), and whether this differs in its impact on individuals with lower or higher schizotypy. Participants were assessed psychometrically for their level of schizotypy using the O-LIFE, and were reinforced for choosing wither nouns or verbs. A word recognition task was then presented, during which words or non-words were presented on a fast-moving display was employed. The words could wither be nouns or verbs. Those higher in schizotypy showed greater numbers of false perceptions than those with lower schizotypy, and previous reinforcement history impacted on performance. When words from a previously reinforced class were tested, recognition of words that were present was higher than when the test class was not previously reinforced. Moreover, in conditions where expectancies had been violated, those with higher schizotypy showed greater numbers of false perceptions than those with lower schizotypy scores. Thus, the current findings show situational factors such as previous experience and current context are also important in generating false perceptions.
Keywords: Visual hallucination; Expectancies; Schizotypy; O-LIFE
College: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
Start Page: 111898