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The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L

Will Beard, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, Nick Barnard, Thomas Jones, Jack Adams

Materials Science and Engineering: A, Volume: 864, Start page: 144593

Swansea University Authors: Will Beard, Robert Lancaster Orcid Logo, Nick Barnard

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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are currently under consideration for marine based components, predominantly due to the numerous benefits that the techniques have to offer over more conventional manufacturing routes. However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated w...

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Published in: Materials Science and Engineering: A
ISSN: 0921-5093
Published: Elsevier BV 2023
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa62265
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However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated with the introduction of AM based parts into safety critical applications related to the mechanical behaviour of such components. One of the main factors influencing the cyclic performance of a component is the surface finish. As-built AM parts typically exhibit a rough surface owing to partially melted powder being present at the surface and the layer-by-layer nature of the AM process, which together will likely hinder the fatigue response of the component. This behaviour is further influenced by the build orientation of the AM component, with alternative orientations providing a different surface profile alongside a contrasting microstructural morphology. Therefore, alternative finishing methods have been explored to maximise the fatigue performance of components whilst also considering cost and time. This research will explore the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of laser powder bed fused (LPBF) stainless steel 316L (SS316LN) built in two principal orientations (vertical (90&#xB0;) and diagonal (45&#xB0;)) and subsequently subjected to several post-manufacture finishing processes in order to identify the optimal finish for mechanical performance. The mechanical results are supported by microstructural, fractographic and advanced surface profilometry assessments, which have revealed that surface roughness can not be considered alone to be the controlling influence on LCF behaviour. An as-built surface finish will inherently provide a greater number of surface breaking stress raisers, however, a novel mass finishing polishing procedure has been found to produce a similar effective stress concentration factor compared to conventional longitudinal polishing, offering a more viable and less time consuming alternative. Several other key factors must also be considered when assessing the fatigue performance of LPBF built materials, including build direction and the resulting grain orientation, density of the additive structure and the material's sensitivity to the presence of notched features at the surface. 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spelling 2023-02-01T17:04:50.2759359 v2 62265 2023-01-05 The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L 86eea6165c3c9844b73d6e04a6228dd2 Will Beard Will Beard true false e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29 0000-0002-1365-6944 Robert Lancaster Robert Lancaster true false dc4a58e614bc6a1d99812a3acfdd9034 Nick Barnard Nick Barnard true false 2023-01-05 FGSEN Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are currently under consideration for marine based components, predominantly due to the numerous benefits that the techniques have to offer over more conventional manufacturing routes. However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated with the introduction of AM based parts into safety critical applications related to the mechanical behaviour of such components. One of the main factors influencing the cyclic performance of a component is the surface finish. As-built AM parts typically exhibit a rough surface owing to partially melted powder being present at the surface and the layer-by-layer nature of the AM process, which together will likely hinder the fatigue response of the component. This behaviour is further influenced by the build orientation of the AM component, with alternative orientations providing a different surface profile alongside a contrasting microstructural morphology. Therefore, alternative finishing methods have been explored to maximise the fatigue performance of components whilst also considering cost and time. This research will explore the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of laser powder bed fused (LPBF) stainless steel 316L (SS316LN) built in two principal orientations (vertical (90°) and diagonal (45°)) and subsequently subjected to several post-manufacture finishing processes in order to identify the optimal finish for mechanical performance. The mechanical results are supported by microstructural, fractographic and advanced surface profilometry assessments, which have revealed that surface roughness can not be considered alone to be the controlling influence on LCF behaviour. An as-built surface finish will inherently provide a greater number of surface breaking stress raisers, however, a novel mass finishing polishing procedure has been found to produce a similar effective stress concentration factor compared to conventional longitudinal polishing, offering a more viable and less time consuming alternative. Several other key factors must also be considered when assessing the fatigue performance of LPBF built materials, including build direction and the resulting grain orientation, density of the additive structure and the material's sensitivity to the presence of notched features at the surface. Finally, the generated mechanical data has also been interpreted through empirical modelling, and the various data sets have been successfully correlated to enable longer fatigue life predictions. Journal Article Materials Science and Engineering: A 864 144593 Elsevier BV 0921-5093 Laser powder bed fusion, Low cycle fatigue, Stainless steel 316L, Surface roughness, Build orientation 5 2 2023 2023-02-05 10.1016/j.msea.2023.144593 COLLEGE NANME Science and Engineering - Faculty COLLEGE CODE FGSEN Swansea University SU Library paid the OA fee (TA Institutional Deal) EPSRC, EP/H500383/1,EP/H022309/1 2023-02-01T17:04:50.2759359 2023-01-05T08:42:56.5892097 Faculty of Science and Engineering School of Engineering and Applied Sciences - Materials Science and Engineering Will Beard 1 Robert Lancaster 0000-0002-1365-6944 2 Nick Barnard 3 Thomas Jones 4 Jack Adams 5 62265__26208__866c2b60aecd4447a3bcda09e0ed5e38.pdf 62265.pdf 2023-01-09T10:11:34.6709721 Output 12254986 application/pdf Version of Record true © 2023 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY license true eng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
title The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
spellingShingle The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
Will Beard
Robert Lancaster
Nick Barnard
title_short The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
title_full The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
title_fullStr The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
title_full_unstemmed The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
title_sort The influence of surface finish and build orientation on the low cycle fatigue behaviour of laser powder bed fused stainless steel 316L
author_id_str_mv 86eea6165c3c9844b73d6e04a6228dd2
e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29
dc4a58e614bc6a1d99812a3acfdd9034
author_id_fullname_str_mv 86eea6165c3c9844b73d6e04a6228dd2_***_Will Beard
e1a1b126acd3e4ff734691ec34967f29_***_Robert Lancaster
dc4a58e614bc6a1d99812a3acfdd9034_***_Nick Barnard
author Will Beard
Robert Lancaster
Nick Barnard
author2 Will Beard
Robert Lancaster
Nick Barnard
Thomas Jones
Jack Adams
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container_start_page 144593
publishDate 2023
institution Swansea University
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doi_str_mv 10.1016/j.msea.2023.144593
publisher Elsevier BV
college_str Faculty of Science and Engineering
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description Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are currently under consideration for marine based components, predominantly due to the numerous benefits that the techniques have to offer over more conventional manufacturing routes. However, there are multiple engineering challenges and questions associated with the introduction of AM based parts into safety critical applications related to the mechanical behaviour of such components. One of the main factors influencing the cyclic performance of a component is the surface finish. As-built AM parts typically exhibit a rough surface owing to partially melted powder being present at the surface and the layer-by-layer nature of the AM process, which together will likely hinder the fatigue response of the component. This behaviour is further influenced by the build orientation of the AM component, with alternative orientations providing a different surface profile alongside a contrasting microstructural morphology. Therefore, alternative finishing methods have been explored to maximise the fatigue performance of components whilst also considering cost and time. This research will explore the low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviour of laser powder bed fused (LPBF) stainless steel 316L (SS316LN) built in two principal orientations (vertical (90°) and diagonal (45°)) and subsequently subjected to several post-manufacture finishing processes in order to identify the optimal finish for mechanical performance. The mechanical results are supported by microstructural, fractographic and advanced surface profilometry assessments, which have revealed that surface roughness can not be considered alone to be the controlling influence on LCF behaviour. An as-built surface finish will inherently provide a greater number of surface breaking stress raisers, however, a novel mass finishing polishing procedure has been found to produce a similar effective stress concentration factor compared to conventional longitudinal polishing, offering a more viable and less time consuming alternative. Several other key factors must also be considered when assessing the fatigue performance of LPBF built materials, including build direction and the resulting grain orientation, density of the additive structure and the material's sensitivity to the presence of notched features at the surface. Finally, the generated mechanical data has also been interpreted through empirical modelling, and the various data sets have been successfully correlated to enable longer fatigue life predictions.
published_date 2023-02-05T04:21:44Z
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