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Efficient and Stable Perovskite Solar Cells with a High Open‐Circuit Voltage Over 1.2 V Achieved by a Dual‐Side Passivation Layer
Advanced Materials, Volume: 34, Issue: 41, Start page: 2205268
Swansea University Authors: Yong Kim, Oskar Sandberg , Stefan Zeiske, Gregory Burwell , Drew Riley, Paul Meredith , Ardalan Armin
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DOI (Published version): 10.1002/adma.202205268
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has been one of the most established hole transport layers (HTL) in organic solar cells (OSCs) for several decades. However, the presence of PSS− ions is known to deteriorate device performance via a number of mechanisms including di...
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Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) has been one of the most established hole transport layers (HTL) in organic solar cells (OSCs) for several decades. However, the presence of PSS− ions is known to deteriorate device performance via a number of mechanisms including diffusion to the HTL-active layer interface and unwanted local chemical reactions. In this study, it is shown that PSS− ions can also result in local p-doping in the high efficiency donor:non-fullerene acceptor blends – resulting in photocurrent loss. To address these issues, a facile and effective approach is reported to improve the OSC performance through a two-component hole transport layer (HTL) consisting of a self-assembled monolayer of 2PACz ([2-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)ethyl]phosphonic acid) and PEDOT:PSS. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.1% using devices with PEDOT:PSS HTL improved to 17.7% when the PEDOT:PSS/2PACz two-component HTL is used. The improved performance is attributed to the overlaid 2PACz layer preventing the formation of an intermixed p-doped PSS− ion rich region (≈5–10 nm) at the bulk heterojunction-HTL contact interface, resulting in decreased recombination losses and improved stability. Moreover, the 2PACz monolayer is also found to reduce electrical shunts that ultimately yield improved performance in large area devices with PCE enhanced from 12.3% to 13.3% in 1 cm2 cells.
hole transport layer; interfacial doping; interfacial recombination; organic solar cells
Faculty of Science and Engineering
EPSRC. Grant Number: EP/T028511/1