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Thermo-mechanical properties of digitally-printed elastomeric polyurethane: Experimental characterisation and constitutive modelling using a nonlinear temperature-strain coupled scaling strategy
International Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume: 267, Start page: 112163
Swansea University Author: Mokarram Hossain
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DOI (Published version): 10.1016/j.ijsolstr.2023.112163
The Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has emerged as a novel paradigm that uses the method of gradual accumulation of materials to manufacture solid parts, which is a “bottom-up” approach compared to the traditional cutting technology. Among available techniques, Digital Light Synthesis (DLS) f...
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The Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has emerged as a novel paradigm that uses the method of gradual accumulation of materials to manufacture solid parts, which is a “bottom-up” approach compared to the traditional cutting technology. Among available techniques, Digital Light Synthesis (DLS) further facilitates the opportunity for continuous building instead of the layer-by-layer or the dot-by-dot printing approach, thus curtailing the time of production and encouraging the development of many new materials. In this contribution, temperature-dependent mechanical properties of a DLS-based 3D-printed elastomeric polyurethane (EPU) are investigated utilizing experimental characterization and constitutive modelling. Specifically, uniaxial tensile and stress relaxation tests under temperature fields ranging from −20 °C to 60 °C are performed, which reveal deformation-nonlinearity and temperature-sensitivity of the elastomer. This temperature range covers below and above the glass transition region of the polymer. Experimental results show that the temperature-dependence is correlated with temperature field and strain levels simultaneously. Motivated by the experimental results, a phenomenologically-inspired thermodynamically-consistent constitutive model is devised to characterise the finite deformation behaviours of EPU. In this case, for the first time, a single temperature-strain coupling function can capture the thermo-mechanical behaviour across the glass transition. Good accuracy of the prediction can be seen using the proposed constitutive model. This study contributes to the fundamental understanding of the mechanical properties of DLS-based digitally-printed EPU under a wide temperature field. The comprehensive thermo-mechanical experimental characterisation and subsequent constitutive modelling will facilitate the designing of other 3D-printed soft materials.
Additive manufacturing; Digitally-printed polyurethane; Experimental characterisation; Constitutive modelling; Temperature effect
Faculty of Science and Engineering
This study is funded by the Swansea Bay City Deal, United Kingdom and the European Regional Development Fund through the Welsh European Funding Office. This study is also supported by EPSRC through the Supergen ORE Hub (EP/S000747/1), who have awarded funding for the Flexible Fund project Submerged bi-axial fatigue analysis for flexible membrane Wave Energy Converters (FF2021-1036). This work is partially supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholar, China (No. 11925203), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11672110), and the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Traction Power, China under Grant (No. TPL2003). A. SM Alzaidi acknowledges Taif University Researchers, Saudi Arabia Supporting Project number (TURSP-2020/303), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.