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Mid-gap trap state-mediated dark current in organic photodiodes
Nature Photonics, Volume: 17, Issue: 4, Pages: 368 - 374
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Photodiodes are ubiquitous in industry and consumer electronics. Constantly emerging new applications for photodiodes demand different mechanical and optoelectronic properties from those provided by conventional inorganic-based semiconductor devices. This has stimulated considerable interest in the...
|Published in:||Nature Photonics|
Springer Science and Business Media LLC
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Photodiodes are ubiquitous in industry and consumer electronics. Constantly emerging new applications for photodiodes demand different mechanical and optoelectronic properties from those provided by conventional inorganic-based semiconductor devices. This has stimulated considerable interest in the use of organic semiconductors, which provide a vast palette of available optoelectronic properties, can be incorporated into flexible form factor geometries, and promise low-cost, low-embodied energy manufacturing from earth-abundant materials. The sensitivity of a photodiode depends critically on the dark current. Organic photodiodes (OPDs), however, are characterized by a much higher dark current than expected for thermally excited radiative transitions. Here we show that the dark saturation current in OPDs is fundamentally limited by mid-gap trap states. This new insight is generated by the universal trend observed for the dark saturation current of a large set of OPDs and further substantiated by sensitive external-quantum-efficiency- and temperature-dependent current measurements. Based on this insight, an upper limit for the specific detectivity is established. A detailed understanding of the origins of noise in any detector is fundamental to defining performance limitations and thus is critical to materials and device selection, and design and optimization for all applications. Our work establishes these important principles for OPDs.
Photonic devices, Polymers
Faculty of Science and Engineering