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An integrated in vitro carcinogenicity test that distinguishes between genotoxic carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-carcinogens

Katherine Chapman Orcid Logo, Ume-kulsoom Shah Orcid Logo, Jessica Fletcher Orcid Logo, George Johnson Orcid Logo, Shareen Doak Orcid Logo, Gareth Jenkins Orcid Logo

Mutagenesis, Volume: 39, Issue: 2, Pages: 69 - 77

Swansea University Authors: Katherine Chapman Orcid Logo, Ume-kulsoom Shah Orcid Logo, Jessica Fletcher Orcid Logo, George Johnson Orcid Logo, Shareen Doak Orcid Logo, Gareth Jenkins Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.1093/mutage/geae004

Abstract

Chemical safety testing plays a crucial role in product and pharmacological development, as well as chemoprevention; however, in vitro genotoxicity safety tests do not always accurately predict the chemicals that will be in vivo carcinogens. If chemicals test positive in vitro for genotoxicity but n...

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Published in: Mutagenesis
ISSN: 0267-8357 1464-3804
Published: Oxford University Press (OUP) 2024
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa65653
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Abstract: Chemical safety testing plays a crucial role in product and pharmacological development, as well as chemoprevention; however, in vitro genotoxicity safety tests do not always accurately predict the chemicals that will be in vivo carcinogens. If chemicals test positive in vitro for genotoxicity but negative in vivo, this can contribute to unnecessary testing in animals used to confirm erroneous in vitro positive results. Current in vitro tests typically evaluate only genotoxicity endpoints, which limits their potential to detect non-genotoxic carcinogens. The frequency of misleading in vitro positive results can be high, leading to a requirement for more informative in vitro tests. It is now recognized that multiple-endpoint genotoxicity testing may aid more accurate detection of carcinogens and non-carcinogens. The objective of this review was to evaluate the utility of our novel, multiple-endpoint in vitro test, which uses multiple cancer-relevant endpoints to predict carcinogenic potential. The tool assessed micronucleus frequency, p53 expression, p21 expression, mitochondrial respiration, cell cycle abnormalities and, uniquely, cell morphology changes in human lymphoblastoid cell lines, TK6 and MCL-5. The endpoints were used to observe cellular responses to 18 chemicals within the following categories: genotoxic carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, toxic non-carcinogens, and misleading in vitro positive and negative agents. The number of endpoints significantly altered for each chemical was considered, alongside the holistic Integrated Signature of Carcinogenicity score, derived from the sum of fold changes for all endpoints. Following the calculation of an overall score from these measures, carcinogens exhibited greater potency than non-carcinogens. Genotoxic carcinogens were generally more potent than non-genotoxic carcinogens. This novel approach therefore demonstrated potential for correctly predicting whether chemicals with unknown mechanism may be considered carcinogens. Overall, while further validation is recommended, the test demonstrates potential for the identification of carcinogenic compounds. Adoption of the approach could enable reduced animal use in carcinogenicity testing.
Keywords: carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, micronucleus assay, multiple-endpoint, in vitro
College: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences
Funders: This work was supported by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) (Grant number NC/K500033/1) and the UK Environmental Mutagen Society.
Issue: 2
Start Page: 69
End Page: 77