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New constraints on the Middle-Late Pleistocene Campi Flegrei explosive activity and Mediterranean tephrostratigraphy (∼160 ka and 110–90 ka)

Giada Fernandez Orcid Logo, Biagio Giaccio Orcid Logo, Antonio Costa Orcid Logo, Lorenzo Monaco Orcid Logo, Sébastien Nomade, Paul Albert Orcid Logo, Alison Pereira, Molly Flynn, Niklas Leicher Orcid Logo, Federico Lucchi Orcid Logo, Paola Petrosino Orcid Logo, Danilo M. Palladino, Alfonsa Milia, Donatella Domenica Insinga Orcid Logo, Sabine Wulf Orcid Logo, Rebecca Kearney, Daniel Veres, Diana Jordanova Orcid Logo, Maria Luisa Putignano, Roberto Isaia, Gianluca Sottili

Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume: 331, Start page: 108623

Swansea University Authors: Paul Albert Orcid Logo, Molly Flynn

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Abstract

The Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, in southern Italy, is the source of some the most powerful Late Pleistocene eruptions of the European sub-continent (e.g., Campanian Ignimbrite, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff eruptions). Although the CF caldera has been continuously and intensively investigated for decades,...

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Published in: Quaternary Science Reviews
ISSN: 0277-3791
Published: Elsevier BV 2024
Online Access: Check full text

URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa65879
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Abstract: The Campi Flegrei (CF) caldera, in southern Italy, is the source of some the most powerful Late Pleistocene eruptions of the European sub-continent (e.g., Campanian Ignimbrite, Neapolitan Yellow Tuff eruptions). Although the CF caldera has been continuously and intensively investigated for decades, relatively little is known regarding its earliest volcanic activity. Here integrating existing and new tephrostratigraphic data we provide a comprehensive and updated framework for CF volcanic activity which has occurred at ~160 ka and between ~110 ka and ~90 ka. The new tephrostratigraphic, geochemical (EMPA + LA-ICP-MS), chronological (40Ar/39Ar dating) and grain-size distribution data relate to CF tephra deposits preserved in 41 mid-proximal (Campanian Plain), distal (Tyrrhenian Sea) and ultra-distal (Lower Danube area) sedimentary archives. Our results allow us to recognize the presence of at least 13 CF eruptions covering the investigated time frame, with 12 eruptions occurring between 110 and 90 ka. Our high-resolution stratigraphic and chronological investigation also allowed us to recognise that the Triflisco/C-22 tephra, previously considered as a single marker layer, can be actually separated into three different events, sourced from within the CF area in the short time interval of ~93-90 ka, suggesting a more complex and intense volcanic history than previously thought. Moreover, a Bayesian age-depth model, constrained by previous and new high precision 40Ar/39Ar ages, has led to a reliable estimate of the ages of those undated CF eruptions. Overall, the updated framework on the stratigraphy, chronology, dispersion, and geochemistry of the CF tephra of ~160 ka and between 110 ka and 90 ka consolidates the notion that the Middle-Late Pleistocene activity at CF area represents a significant stage of its volcanic evolution, characterised by intense and frequent explosive eruptions.
Keywords: Tephrochronology; Campi Flegrei; Middle-Late Pleistocene; EMPA and LA-ICP-MS; 40Ar/39Ar geochronology; Grain-size
College: Faculty of Science and Engineering
Funders: Dr. M. Mannetta is thanked for aiding the sample preparation process for the EMPA analyses. Dr. E. Braschi and A. Orlando are thanked for providing technical assistance during the EMPA analyses at Florence University. Dr. S. Tamburrino is thanked for sampling and providing grain-size data from the KC01B marine core. This research was financially supported by the project “The onset of alkaline-potassium magmatism in central Italy: how, when and why?” (PI: G. S.), funded by "Sapienza" University of Rome (Year 2020; prot. RM120172B9B69EB0). Field activities and grain-size analyses were financially supported by “Sapienza” University of Rome. WDS tephra analysis was supported by the projects FUTURE (MUR, PRIN 2017; grant 20177TKBXZ_003, G. Zanchetta coordinator) and COMET (MUR, PRIN 2022; grant 2022MS9KWR, B. Giaccio coordinator) financed by the Italian Research Ministry. PGA contribution was supported by a UKRI Future Leaders Fellowship (MR/S035478/1).
Start Page: 108623