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Trapped antihydrogen / E Butler, G. B Andresen, M. D Ashkezari, M Baquero-Ruiz, W Bertsche, P. D Bowe, C. L Cesar, S Chapman, M Charlton, A Deller, S Eriksson, J Fajans, T Friesen, M. C Fujiwara, D. R Gill, A Gutierrez, J. S Hangst, W. N Hardy, M. E Hayden, A. J Humphries, R Hydomako, M. J Jenkins, S Jonsell, L. V Jørgensen, S. L Kemp, L Kurchaninov, N Madsen, S Menary, P Nolan, K Olchanski, A Olin, A Povilus, P Pusa, C. Ø Rasmussen, F Robicheaux, E Sarid, S. Seif el Nasr, D. M Silveira, C So, J. W Storey, R. I Thompson, D. P Werf, J. S Wurtele, Y Yamazaki, Dirk van der Werf, Niels Madsen, Stefan Eriksson

Hyperfine Interactions, Volume: 212, Issue: 1-3, Pages: 15 - 29

Swansea University Authors: Dirk van der Werf, Niels Madsen, Stefan Eriksson

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Abstract

Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electrom...

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Published in: Hyperfine Interactions
ISSN: 0304-3843 1572-9540
Published: 2012
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The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-artmagnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ~1 T (~0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be &#x2018;born&#x2019; inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energyper particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10^4 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released&#x2014;the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). 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spelling 2011-10-01T00:00:00.0000000 v2 13700 2012-12-16 Trapped antihydrogen 4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a 0000-0001-5436-5214 Dirk van der Werf Dirk van der Werf true false e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303 0000-0002-7372-0784 Niels Madsen Niels Madsen true false 785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8 Stefan Eriksson Stefan Eriksson true false 2012-12-16 SPH Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-artmagnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ~1 T (~0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energyper particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10^4 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released—the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state Journal Article Hyperfine Interactions 212 1-3 15 29 0304-3843 1572-9540 31 12 2012 2012-12-31 10.1007/s10751-011-0396-3 COLLEGE NANME Physics COLLEGE CODE SPH Swansea University 2011-10-01T00:00:00.0000000 2012-12-16T17:32:13.2203296 College of Science Physics E Butler 1 G. B Andresen 2 M. D Ashkezari 3 M Baquero-Ruiz 4 W Bertsche 5 P. D Bowe 6 C. L Cesar 7 S Chapman 8 M Charlton 9 A Deller 10 S Eriksson 11 J Fajans 12 T Friesen 13 M. C Fujiwara 14 D. R Gill 15 A Gutierrez 16 J. S Hangst 17 W. N Hardy 18 M. E Hayden 19 A. J Humphries 20 R Hydomako 21 M. J Jenkins 22 S Jonsell 23 L. V Jørgensen 24 S. L Kemp 25 L Kurchaninov 26 N Madsen 27 S Menary 28 P Nolan 29 K Olchanski 30 A Olin 31 A Povilus 32 P Pusa 33 C. Ø Rasmussen 34 F Robicheaux 35 E Sarid 36 S. Seif el Nasr 37 D. M Silveira 38 C So 39 J. W Storey 40 R. I Thompson 41 D. P Werf 42 J. S Wurtele 43 Y Yamazaki 44 Dirk van der Werf 0000-0001-5436-5214 45 Niels Madsen 0000-0002-7372-0784 46 Stefan Eriksson 47
title Trapped antihydrogen
spellingShingle Trapped antihydrogen
Dirk, van der Werf
Niels, Madsen
Stefan, Eriksson
title_short Trapped antihydrogen
title_full Trapped antihydrogen
title_fullStr Trapped antihydrogen
title_full_unstemmed Trapped antihydrogen
title_sort Trapped antihydrogen
author_id_str_mv 4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8
author_id_fullname_str_mv 4a4149ebce588e432f310f4ab44dd82a_***_Dirk, van der Werf
e348e4d768ee19c1d0c68ce3a66d6303_***_Niels, Madsen
785cbd474febb1bfa9c0e14abaf9c4a8_***_Stefan, Eriksson
author Dirk, van der Werf
Niels, Madsen
Stefan, Eriksson
author2 E Butler
G. B Andresen
M. D Ashkezari
M Baquero-Ruiz
W Bertsche
P. D Bowe
C. L Cesar
S Chapman
M Charlton
A Deller
S Eriksson
J Fajans
T Friesen
M. C Fujiwara
D. R Gill
A Gutierrez
J. S Hangst
W. N Hardy
M. E Hayden
A. J Humphries
R Hydomako
M. J Jenkins
S Jonsell
L. V Jørgensen
S. L Kemp
L Kurchaninov
N Madsen
S Menary
P Nolan
K Olchanski
A Olin
A Povilus
P Pusa
C. Ø Rasmussen
F Robicheaux
E Sarid
S. Seif el Nasr
D. M Silveira
C So
J. W Storey
R. I Thompson
D. P Werf
J. S Wurtele
Y Yamazaki
Dirk van der Werf
Niels Madsen
Stefan Eriksson
format Journal article
container_title Hyperfine Interactions
container_volume 212
container_issue 1-3
container_start_page 15
publishDate 2012
institution Swansea University
issn 0304-3843
1572-9540
doi_str_mv 10.1007/s10751-011-0396-3
college_str College of Science
hierarchytype
hierarchy_top_id collegeofscience
hierarchy_top_title College of Science
hierarchy_parent_id collegeofscience
hierarchy_parent_title College of Science
department_str Physics{{{_:::_}}}College of Science{{{_:::_}}}Physics
document_store_str 0
active_str 0
description Precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen holds the promise of a sensitive test of the Charge-Parity-Time theorem and matter-antimatter equivalence. The clearest path towards realising this goal is to hold a sample of antihydrogen in an atomic trap for interrogation by electromagnetic radiation. Achieving this poses a huge experimental challenge, as state-of-the-artmagnetic-minimum atom traps have well depths of only ~1 T (~0.5 K for ground state antihydrogen atoms). The atoms annihilate on contact with matter and must be ‘born’ inside the magnetic trap with low kinetic energies. At the ALPHA experiment, antihydrogen atoms are produced from antiprotons and positrons stored in the form of non-neutral plasmas, where the typical electrostatic potential energyper particle is on the order of electronvolts, more than 10^4 times the maximum trappable kinetic energy. In November 2010, ALPHA published the observation of 38 antiproton annihilations due to antihydrogen atoms that had been trapped for at least 172 ms and then released—the first instance of a purely antimatter atomic system confined for any length of time (Andresen et al., Nature 468:673, 2010). We present a description of the main components of the ALPHA traps and detectors that were key to realising this result. We discuss how the antihydrogen atoms were identified and how they were discriminated from the background processes. Since the results published in Andresen et al. (Nature 468:673, 2010), refinements in the antihydrogen production technique have allowed many more antihydrogen atoms to be trapped, and held for much longer times. We have identified antihydrogen atoms that have been trapped for at least 1,000 s in the apparatus (Andresen et al., Nature Physics 7:558, 2011). This is more than sufficient time to interrogate the atoms spectroscopically, as well as to ensure that they have relaxed to their ground state
published_date 2012-12-31T03:26:04Z
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