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The Family Streptomycetaceae
The Prokaryotes, Pages: 889 - 1010
Swansea University Author: Geertje Van Keulen
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DOI (Published version): 10.1007/978-3-642-30138-4_184
The family Streptomycetaceae comprises the genera Streptomyces, Kitasatospora, and Streptacidiphilus that are very difficult to differentiate both with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. A separate generic status for Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus is questionable. Members of the family c...
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The family Streptomycetaceae comprises the genera Streptomyces, Kitasatospora, and Streptacidiphilus that are very difficult to differentiate both with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. A separate generic status for Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus is questionable. Members of the family can be characterized as non-acid-alcohol-fast actinomycetes that generate most often an extensively branched substrate mycelium that rarely fragments. At maturity, the aerial mycelium forms chains of few to many spores. A large variety of pigments is produced, responsible for the color of the substrate and aerial mycelium. The organisms are chemoorganotrophic with an oxidative type of metabolism and grow within different pH ranges. Streptomyces are notable for their complex developmental cycle and production of bioactive secondary metabolites, producing more than a third of commercially available antibiotics. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and immunosuppressant compounds have been identified as products of Streptomyces secondary metabolism. Streptomyces can be distinguished from other filamentous actinomycetes on the basis of morphological characteristics, in particular by vegetative mycelium, aerial mycelium, and arthrospores. The genus comprises at the time of writing more than 600 species with validated names. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based analysis for species delineation within the Streptomycetaceae is of limited value. The variations within the 16S rRNA genes—even in the variable regions—are too small to resolve problems of species differentiation and to establish a taxonomic structure within the genus. Comprehensive comparative studies including protein-coding gene sequences with higher phylogenetic resolution and genome-based studies are needed to clarify the species delineation within the Streptomycetaceae.
'The Prokaryotes' is a comprehensive, multi-authored, peer reviewed reference work on Bacteria and Achaea. This fourth edition of The Prokaryotes is organized to cover all taxonomic diversity, using the family level to delineate chapters. The 4th edition of The Prokaryotes is the most complete resource on the biology of prokaryotes.
Streptomyces, taxonomy, molecular and phenotypical analyses, development, antibiotics, isolation, enrichment, ecology
Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences