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Short communication: Glutamine modulates inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in ex vivo bovine endometrium
Journal of Dairy Science, Volume: 100, Pages: 2207 - 2212
Swansea University Author: Martin Sheldon
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DOI (Published version): 10.3168/jds.2016-12023
Bacteria infect the endometrium lining the uterus of cattle after parturition, and clearance of these microbes depends on a robust innate immune response to bacterial molecules, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endometrial inflammation is characterized by secretion of the cytokines IL...
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Bacteria infect the endometrium lining the uterus of cattle after parturition, and clearance of these microbes depends on a robust innate immune response to bacterial molecules, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Endometrial inflammation is characterized by secretion of the cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 and the chemokine IL-8. However, animals often fail to clear invading bacteria and develop uterine disease if they are in negative energy balance, with reduced abundance of glucose and glutamine, which are substrates for energy in tissues. Depletion of glucose blunts inflammatory responses in the endometrium, but the role of glutamine is not clear. The present study tested the hypothesis that depletion of glutamine compromises inflammatory responses to LPS in endometrial tissue. Ex vivo organ cultures of endometrium were challenged with LPS, and culture supernatants accumulated IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, as expected. However, reducing the availability of glutamine in culture medium containing glucose reduced the accumulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 by >50%. Surprisingly, in the absence of glucose, supplying increasing amounts of glutamine was not sufficient to augment inflammatory responses to LPS, whereas, in the absence of glutamine, supplying more glucose increased inflammation. Furthermore, inhibiting glycolysis reduced the accumulation of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 by >50%, even when glutamine and glucose were abundant. In conclusion, depletion of glutamine reduces inflammatory responses to LPS in the endometrium, and the activity of glutamine depends on glucose and glycolysis. These data provide mechanistic insights into how negative energy balance may be linked to postpartum uterine disease.
The work was funded by a project grant to IMS bythe Biotechnology and Biological Sciences ResearchCouncil (BB/I017240/1; Swindon, UK). Coordenacaode Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior(99999.010219/2014-05; Brasilia, Brazil) and ConselhoNacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico(486143/2013-9; Brasilia, Brazil) were supported PGNand JPES.
Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences