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The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance / N. Williams, M. Russell, C.J. Cook, L.P. Kilduff, Liam Kilduff

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Volume: 35, Issue: 1, Pages: 221 - 226

Swansea University Author: Liam Kilduff

Abstract

The effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on swimming performance was examined. Using a randomized, crossover design, National-and International-level swimmers (n=20; 14 males, 6 females) participated in three trials (Con, IPC-2h, IPC-24h). Lower-body IPC (4 x 5 min bi-lateral blood-flow restrict...

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Published in: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
ISSN: 1064-8011
Published: 2021
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa38240
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fullrecord <?xml version="1.0"?><rfc1807><datestamp>2021-01-11T11:37:22.3501394</datestamp><bib-version>v2</bib-version><id>38240</id><entry>2018-01-22</entry><title>The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance</title><swanseaauthors><author><sid>972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98</sid><ORCID>0000-0001-9449-2293</ORCID><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><name>Liam Kilduff</name><active>true</active><ethesisStudent>false</ethesisStudent></author></swanseaauthors><date>2018-01-22</date><deptcode>STSC</deptcode><abstract>The effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on swimming performance was examined. Using a randomized, crossover design, National-and International-level swimmers (n=20; 14 males, 6 females) participated in three trials (Con, IPC-2h, IPC-24h). Lower-body IPC (4 x 5 min bi-lateral blood-flow restriction at 160-228 mmHg, and 5 min reperfusion) was used 2- (IPC-2h) or 24-h (IPC-24h) before a self-selected (100 m, n=15; 200 m, n=5) swimming time-trial (TT). The Con trial used a sham intervention (15 mmHg) 2h prior to exercise. All trials required a 40-min standardized pre-competition swimming warm-up (followed by 20-min rest; replicating pre-competition call room procedures) 1h before TT. Capillary blood (pH, blood gases and lactate concentrations) was taken immediately pre-and post-IPC, pre-TT and post-TT. No effects on TT for 100 m (P=0.995; IPC-2h: 64.94&#xB1;8.33 s; IPC-24h: 64.67&#xB1;8.50 s; Con: 64.94&#xB1; 8.24 s), 200 m (P=0.405; IPC-2h: 127.70&#xB1;10.66 s; IPC-24h: 129.26&#xB1;12.99 s; Con: 130.19&#xB1;10.27 s) or combined total time (IPC-2h: 84.27&#xB1;31.52 s; IPC-24h: 79.87&#xB1;29.72 s; Con: 80.55&#xB1;31.35 s) were observed following IPC. Base excess (IPC-2h: -13.37&#xB1;8.90 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; Con: -13.35&#xB1;7.07 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; IPC-24h: -16.53&#xB1;4.65 mmol&#x22C5;L-1), pH (0.22&#xB1;0.08; all conditions), bicarbonate (IPC-2h: -11.66&#xB1;3.52 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; Con: -11.62&#xB1;5.59 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; IPC-24h: -8.47&#xB1;9.02 mmol&#x22C5;L-1), total carbon dioxide (IPC-2h: -12.90&#xB1;3.92 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; Con: -11.55&#xB1;7.61 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; IPC-24h: 9.90&#xB1;8.40 mmol&#x22C5;L-1), percentage oxygen saturation (IPC-2h: -0.16&#xB1;1.86%; Con: +0.20&#xB1;1.93%; IPC-24h: +0.47&#xB1;2.10%) and blood lactate (IPC-2h: +12.87&#xB1;3.62 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; Con: +12.41&#xB1;4.02 mmol&#x22C5;L-1; IPC-24h: +13.27&#xB1;3.81 mmol&#x22C5;L-1) were influenced by swimming TT (P&lt;0.001), but not condition (all P&gt;0.05). No effect of IPC was seen when applied 2- or 24-h before swimming TT on any indices of performance or physiological measures recorded.</abstract><type>Journal Article</type><journal>Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research</journal><volume>35</volume><journalNumber>1</journalNumber><paginationStart>221</paginationStart><paginationEnd>226</paginationEnd><publisher/><placeOfPublication/><isbnPrint/><isbnElectronic/><issnPrint>1064-8011</issnPrint><issnElectronic/><keywords/><publishedDay>1</publishedDay><publishedMonth>1</publishedMonth><publishedYear>2021</publishedYear><publishedDate>2021-01-01</publishedDate><doi>10.1519/JSC.0000000000002485</doi><url/><notes/><college>COLLEGE NANME</college><department>Sport and Exercise Sciences</department><CollegeCode>COLLEGE CODE</CollegeCode><DepartmentCode>STSC</DepartmentCode><institution>Swansea University</institution><apcterm/><lastEdited>2021-01-11T11:37:22.3501394</lastEdited><Created>2018-01-22T12:01:49.9079618</Created><path><level id="1">College of Engineering</level><level id="2">Sports Science</level></path><authors><author><firstname>N.</firstname><surname>Williams</surname><order>1</order></author><author><firstname>M.</firstname><surname>Russell</surname><order>2</order></author><author><firstname>C.J.</firstname><surname>Cook</surname><order>3</order></author><author><firstname>L.P.</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><order>4</order></author><author><firstname>Liam</firstname><surname>Kilduff</surname><orcid>0000-0001-9449-2293</orcid><order>5</order></author></authors><documents><document><filename>0038240-22012018120338.pdf</filename><originalFilename>williams2018.pdf</originalFilename><uploaded>2018-01-22T12:03:38.2200000</uploaded><type>Output</type><contentLength>271124</contentLength><contentType>application/pdf</contentType><version>Accepted Manuscript</version><cronfaStatus>true</cronfaStatus><embargoDate>2019-01-30T00:00:00.0000000</embargoDate><copyrightCorrect>true</copyrightCorrect><language>eng</language></document></documents><OutputDurs/></rfc1807>
spelling 2021-01-11T11:37:22.3501394 v2 38240 2018-01-22 The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98 0000-0001-9449-2293 Liam Kilduff Liam Kilduff true false 2018-01-22 STSC The effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on swimming performance was examined. Using a randomized, crossover design, National-and International-level swimmers (n=20; 14 males, 6 females) participated in three trials (Con, IPC-2h, IPC-24h). Lower-body IPC (4 x 5 min bi-lateral blood-flow restriction at 160-228 mmHg, and 5 min reperfusion) was used 2- (IPC-2h) or 24-h (IPC-24h) before a self-selected (100 m, n=15; 200 m, n=5) swimming time-trial (TT). The Con trial used a sham intervention (15 mmHg) 2h prior to exercise. All trials required a 40-min standardized pre-competition swimming warm-up (followed by 20-min rest; replicating pre-competition call room procedures) 1h before TT. Capillary blood (pH, blood gases and lactate concentrations) was taken immediately pre-and post-IPC, pre-TT and post-TT. No effects on TT for 100 m (P=0.995; IPC-2h: 64.94±8.33 s; IPC-24h: 64.67±8.50 s; Con: 64.94± 8.24 s), 200 m (P=0.405; IPC-2h: 127.70±10.66 s; IPC-24h: 129.26±12.99 s; Con: 130.19±10.27 s) or combined total time (IPC-2h: 84.27±31.52 s; IPC-24h: 79.87±29.72 s; Con: 80.55±31.35 s) were observed following IPC. Base excess (IPC-2h: -13.37±8.90 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -13.35±7.07 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: -16.53±4.65 mmol⋅L-1), pH (0.22±0.08; all conditions), bicarbonate (IPC-2h: -11.66±3.52 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -11.62±5.59 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: -8.47±9.02 mmol⋅L-1), total carbon dioxide (IPC-2h: -12.90±3.92 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -11.55±7.61 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: 9.90±8.40 mmol⋅L-1), percentage oxygen saturation (IPC-2h: -0.16±1.86%; Con: +0.20±1.93%; IPC-24h: +0.47±2.10%) and blood lactate (IPC-2h: +12.87±3.62 mmol⋅L-1; Con: +12.41±4.02 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: +13.27±3.81 mmol⋅L-1) were influenced by swimming TT (P<0.001), but not condition (all P>0.05). No effect of IPC was seen when applied 2- or 24-h before swimming TT on any indices of performance or physiological measures recorded. Journal Article Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 35 1 221 226 1064-8011 1 1 2021 2021-01-01 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002485 COLLEGE NANME Sport and Exercise Sciences COLLEGE CODE STSC Swansea University 2021-01-11T11:37:22.3501394 2018-01-22T12:01:49.9079618 College of Engineering Sports Science N. Williams 1 M. Russell 2 C.J. Cook 3 L.P. Kilduff 4 Liam Kilduff 0000-0001-9449-2293 5 0038240-22012018120338.pdf williams2018.pdf 2018-01-22T12:03:38.2200000 Output 271124 application/pdf Accepted Manuscript true 2019-01-30T00:00:00.0000000 true eng
title The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
spellingShingle The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
Liam, Kilduff
title_short The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
title_full The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
title_fullStr The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
title_full_unstemmed The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
title_sort The Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning on Maximal Swimming Performance
author_id_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98
author_id_fullname_str_mv 972ed9a1dda7a0de20581a0f8350be98_***_Liam, Kilduff
author Liam, Kilduff
author2 N. Williams
M. Russell
C.J. Cook
L.P. Kilduff
Liam Kilduff
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container_volume 35
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publishDate 2021
institution Swansea University
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college_str College of Engineering
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hierarchy_top_title College of Engineering
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hierarchy_parent_title College of Engineering
department_str Sports Science{{{_:::_}}}College of Engineering{{{_:::_}}}Sports Science
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description The effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on swimming performance was examined. Using a randomized, crossover design, National-and International-level swimmers (n=20; 14 males, 6 females) participated in three trials (Con, IPC-2h, IPC-24h). Lower-body IPC (4 x 5 min bi-lateral blood-flow restriction at 160-228 mmHg, and 5 min reperfusion) was used 2- (IPC-2h) or 24-h (IPC-24h) before a self-selected (100 m, n=15; 200 m, n=5) swimming time-trial (TT). The Con trial used a sham intervention (15 mmHg) 2h prior to exercise. All trials required a 40-min standardized pre-competition swimming warm-up (followed by 20-min rest; replicating pre-competition call room procedures) 1h before TT. Capillary blood (pH, blood gases and lactate concentrations) was taken immediately pre-and post-IPC, pre-TT and post-TT. No effects on TT for 100 m (P=0.995; IPC-2h: 64.94±8.33 s; IPC-24h: 64.67±8.50 s; Con: 64.94± 8.24 s), 200 m (P=0.405; IPC-2h: 127.70±10.66 s; IPC-24h: 129.26±12.99 s; Con: 130.19±10.27 s) or combined total time (IPC-2h: 84.27±31.52 s; IPC-24h: 79.87±29.72 s; Con: 80.55±31.35 s) were observed following IPC. Base excess (IPC-2h: -13.37±8.90 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -13.35±7.07 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: -16.53±4.65 mmol⋅L-1), pH (0.22±0.08; all conditions), bicarbonate (IPC-2h: -11.66±3.52 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -11.62±5.59 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: -8.47±9.02 mmol⋅L-1), total carbon dioxide (IPC-2h: -12.90±3.92 mmol⋅L-1; Con: -11.55±7.61 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: 9.90±8.40 mmol⋅L-1), percentage oxygen saturation (IPC-2h: -0.16±1.86%; Con: +0.20±1.93%; IPC-24h: +0.47±2.10%) and blood lactate (IPC-2h: +12.87±3.62 mmol⋅L-1; Con: +12.41±4.02 mmol⋅L-1; IPC-24h: +13.27±3.81 mmol⋅L-1) were influenced by swimming TT (P<0.001), but not condition (all P>0.05). No effect of IPC was seen when applied 2- or 24-h before swimming TT on any indices of performance or physiological measures recorded.
published_date 2021-01-01T03:53:19Z
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