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Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study

Elizabeth Hynes, P. Gutfreund, A. J. Parnell, Anthony Higgins Orcid Logo

Soft Matter, Volume: 16, Pages: 3727 - 3739

Swansea University Authors: Elizabeth Hynes, Anthony Higgins Orcid Logo

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DOI (Published version): 10.1039/c9sm02337b

Abstract

The composition profiles of a series of model polystyrene/fullerene bilayers are measured, before, during and after thermal annealing, using in situ neutron reflectometry. In combination with grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements, these experiments, which quantify layer compositions as a...

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Published in: Soft Matter
ISSN: 1744-683X 1744-6848
Published: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) 2020
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URI: https://cronfa.swan.ac.uk/Record/cronfa53337
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first_indexed 2020-01-23T13:57:35Z
last_indexed 2020-06-03T20:03:53Z
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spelling 2020-06-03T16:39:49.9982939 v2 53337 2020-01-23 Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study ac90b957fe2dcc9d41f36a6629757b11 Elizabeth Hynes Elizabeth Hynes true false 4db715667aa7bdc04e87b3ab696d206a 0000-0003-2804-8164 Anthony Higgins Anthony Higgins true false 2020-01-23 FGSEN The composition profiles of a series of model polystyrene/fullerene bilayers are measured, before, during and after thermal annealing, using in situ neutron reflectometry. In combination with grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements, these experiments, which quantify layer compositions as a function of molecular weight using changes in both scattering length density and layer thickness, extend and corroborate recent measurements on ex situ annealed samples and demonstrate that the composition profiles rapidly formed in these systems correspond to two co-existing liquid–liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. The measurements also demonstrate a clear and systematic onset temperature for diffusion of the fullerenes into the PS layer that correlates with the known glass-transition temperatures of both the polymer (as a function of molecular weight) and the fullerene, revealing that the molecular mobility of the fullerenes in these systems is controlled by the intrinsic mobility of the fullerenes themselves and the ability of the polymer to plasticise the fullerenes at the interface. Over the temperature range investigated (up to 145 °C), measurements of equilibrated composition profiles as a function of temperature (during gradual cooling) reveal no significant changes in composition profile, other than those associated with the known thermal expansion/contraction of polystyrene thin-films. Journal Article Soft Matter 16 3727 3739 Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) 1744-683X 1744-6848 15 4 2020 2020-04-15 10.1039/c9sm02337b COLLEGE NANME Science and Engineering - Faculty COLLEGE CODE FGSEN Swansea University 2020-06-03T16:39:49.9982939 2020-01-23T11:57:40.6753654 Elizabeth Hynes 1 P. Gutfreund 2 A. J. Parnell 3 Anthony Higgins 0000-0003-2804-8164 4 53337__16984__125630d92b224cdd986ac4801fbe84a7.pdf 53337.pdf 2020-04-01T08:25:45.9616162 Output 6424335 application/pdf Version of Record true Open Access Article This Open Access Article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence true Open Access Article This Open Access Article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence
title Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
spellingShingle Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
Elizabeth Hynes
Anthony Higgins
title_short Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
title_full Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
title_fullStr Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
title_full_unstemmed Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
title_sort Liquid–liquid equilibrium in polymer–fullerene mixtures; an in situ neutron reflectivity study
author_id_str_mv ac90b957fe2dcc9d41f36a6629757b11
4db715667aa7bdc04e87b3ab696d206a
author_id_fullname_str_mv ac90b957fe2dcc9d41f36a6629757b11_***_Elizabeth Hynes
4db715667aa7bdc04e87b3ab696d206a_***_Anthony Higgins
author Elizabeth Hynes
Anthony Higgins
author2 Elizabeth Hynes
P. Gutfreund
A. J. Parnell
Anthony Higgins
format Journal article
container_title Soft Matter
container_volume 16
container_start_page 3727
publishDate 2020
institution Swansea University
issn 1744-683X
1744-6848
doi_str_mv 10.1039/c9sm02337b
publisher Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
document_store_str 1
active_str 0
description The composition profiles of a series of model polystyrene/fullerene bilayers are measured, before, during and after thermal annealing, using in situ neutron reflectometry. In combination with grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements, these experiments, which quantify layer compositions as a function of molecular weight using changes in both scattering length density and layer thickness, extend and corroborate recent measurements on ex situ annealed samples and demonstrate that the composition profiles rapidly formed in these systems correspond to two co-existing liquid–liquid phases in thermodynamic equilibrium. The measurements also demonstrate a clear and systematic onset temperature for diffusion of the fullerenes into the PS layer that correlates with the known glass-transition temperatures of both the polymer (as a function of molecular weight) and the fullerene, revealing that the molecular mobility of the fullerenes in these systems is controlled by the intrinsic mobility of the fullerenes themselves and the ability of the polymer to plasticise the fullerenes at the interface. Over the temperature range investigated (up to 145 °C), measurements of equilibrated composition profiles as a function of temperature (during gradual cooling) reveal no significant changes in composition profile, other than those associated with the known thermal expansion/contraction of polystyrene thin-films.
published_date 2020-04-15T04:03:15Z
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